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A SHORT 

account 

OF THE 

MALIGNANT FEVER, 

LATELY PREVALENT IN 

PHILADELPHIA: 

WITH A STATEMENT OF THE 

PROCEEDINGS 

THAT TOOK PLACE ON THE SUBJECT IN DIFFERENT 

PARTS OF THE 

UNITED STATES. 


BY MATHEW CAREY. 


SECOND EDITION. 


PHILADELPHIA: 
PRINTED BY THE AUTHOR* 

November 23, 1793* 






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To the American Philojophical Society » 


GENTLEMEN, 

• .. ' • ■ ■ ■ . \ ' 

W ITH due deference, I pre¬ 
fume to dedicate to you 
the following pages, in which I 
have endeavoured to give as faith¬ 
ful an account as poffible, of the 
dreadful calamity we have juft ex¬ 
perienced. 

I am, gentlemen, 

W ith efteem. 

Your obedt. humble fervant, 

MATHEW CAREY, 


Number XLVlL 

t - ■ > ; ♦ * , * • 

Diftricl of Fennfylvania, to wit— 

(L. S.) T> E it remembered, that on the four * 
JkJ teenth day of November , in the eigh¬ 
teenth year of the independence of the united flates 
of America , Mathew Carey , of the faid difridy 
hath depofied in this office , the title of a hooky the 
right whereof he claims as author , in the words fol¬ 
lowings to wit: 

t * > * . f 

„ r i * I / < , 'j • f • *' 

CC short account of the malignant fever lately 
u prevalent in Philadelphia , with a 

proceedings that took place on the fubjecl in dif 
<c ferent parts of the united fates . Mathew 

CareyP In conformity to the ad of the congrefs of 
the united fates y intituledy u An ad for the encou- 
“ ragement of learning; by fecuring the copies of 
maps, chartsy and books , to the authors and pro - 
<c prietors of fuch copies y during the times therein 
u mentioned ” v 

SAMUEL CALDWELL, Clerk of 
the dif rid of Pennfylvania* 


fatement of the 


+. t 


PREFACE. 


Philadelphia i Nov . 14, 1793* 



HE favourable reception given to the imper- 


JL feci account of the fever which I lately pub- 
lifhed, and the particular defire of fome of my 
friends, have induced me to undertake a more 
fatisfaclory hiftory of it, in order to collect 
together, while facia are recent, as many of the 
mofl interefiing occurrences as I could, for the 
information of the public. 

I have not attempted any embellifhment or 
ornament of flile ; but have alone aimed at tel¬ 
ling plain truths in plain language. I have taken 
every precaution to arrive at the truth; and 
hope the errors in the account, will not be found 
numerous. 

For the defultory plan of fome part of the 



( vi )■ 

pamphlet, I have to offer the following apolo¬ 
gy ; many of the circumftances and reflexions 
towards the conclufion, which v/ould have come 
with more propriety in the beginning, did not 
occur, until fome of the firfl half fheets were 
not only written, but printed. I had no choice, 
therefore, but either to omit them, or place 
them fomewhat out of order. I preferred the 
latter. 


Molt of the fa£ts mentioned have fallen un¬ 
der my own obfervation. Thofe of a different 
defcription I have been affiduous to collect from 
every perfon of credibility, poffeffed of infor¬ 
mation. 

Defirous of having this account correct and 
complete, I have printed off but a fmall num¬ 
ber of copies of the prefent edition: and fhali 
efteem myfelf mail particularly obliged to any 
perfon who will be fa kind to point out errors, 
to be corrected in, or fuggeft facts, to be added 
to, a new edition, which I propofe to put to prefh 
very foon, and which will, I hope, be found 
ftill more ample than the prefent one. 


( vii ) 


;■ " November 23, 1793, 

When I publifhed the firft edition of this pam¬ 
phlet, it wa,s my intention to have greatly en¬ 
larged it for a fecond one, and to have new 
modelled it, fo as to preferve a connexion be¬ 
tween its feveral parts, in which it is extremely 
deficient. But its fpeedy fale, and the demand 
for more copies, renders it impoffible for me to 
do more, at prefent, than make fuch corrections 
as the kindnefs of a few friends has led them to 
point out, ' 

r r . r ' : ■ '{' ■ . ’ .'<•••* 

v . I f 4 > J . i * J • ■ > -* * 

in giving an account of the proceedings that 
took place on the fubjeci throughout the union, 
I have fuppreffed many a harfh, unkind com- 
inent, which was forcing itfelf on me ; from 
the reflexion, that in firnilar circumflances we 
might perhaps have been equally feverc\ And 
to perpetuate animalities is performing a very 
unfriendly office. They are eafily generated ; 
but their extinction is a work of time and diffi¬ 
culty. Let us, therefore, (efpecially when ire 
4,4 hold the mirror up to nature” at home,) not 
only forgive, but even forget, if poffible, all the 
nnpleafant treatment our citizens have expert- 
diced. 


I have heard more than one perfon object 
to the account of the fhocking circumftances 
that occurred in Philadelphia, as pourtraying 
the manners of the people in an unfavourable 
light. If that be the cafe, the fault is not mine, 
I am confcious I have not exaggerated the mat¬ 
ter. But I do not conceive it can have that effecft; 
for it would be as unjuft and injudicious to draw 
the character of Philadelphia from the conduct 
of a period of horror and affright, when all the 
mild charities of focial life” were fuppreffed by 
regard for felf—as to ftamp eternal infamy on a 
nation for the atrocities perpetrated in times of 
civil broils, when all the “ angry paflions” are 
roufed into dreadful and ferocious aftivity. 


J 


A SHORT ACCOUNT, &c. 


./ 



EFORE I enter on the conflderation of this 

( 

diforder, it may not be improper to offer 
a few introductory remarks on the fituation of 
Philadelphia previous to its commencement, 
which will reflect light on fome of the circum- 
fiances mentioned in the courfe of the narra¬ 
tive. 


The manufactures, trade, and commerce of 
Philadelphia had, for a confiderable time, been 
improving and extending with great rapidity. 
From the period of the adoption of the federal 
government, at which time we were at the low- 
eft ebb of diflrefs, our fituation had progref- 
fively become more and more prosperous. Con¬ 
fidence, formerly banifhed, was univerfally re- 
ftored. Property of every kind, rofe to, and in 

£ 




( 1 ° } 

fome inflances beyond, its real value: and a 
few revolving years exhibited the interefling 
fpeclacle of a young country, with a new form 
of government, emerging from aftate approach¬ 
ing very near to anarchy, and acquiring all the 
liability and nerve of the beft-toned and oldefl 
nations. 

In this profperity, which revived the hopes of 
four millions of people, Philadelphia participa¬ 
ted in an eminent degree. New houfes, in al- 
moft every ilreet, built in a very neat, elegant 
flile, adorned, at the fame time that they en¬ 
larged the city. Its population was extending 
fait. Houfe rent had rifen to a moll extravagant 
height; it was in many cafes double, and in 
fome treble what it had been a year or two be¬ 
fore ; and, as is generally the cafe, when a city 
is thriving, it went far beyond the real increafe 
of trade. The number of applicants for houfes, 
exceeding the number of houfes to be let, one 
bid over another; and affairs were in fuch a fitua- 
tion, that many people, though they had a tole¬ 
rable run ofbufmefs, could hardly do more than 
dear their rents, and were, literally, toiling for 


i 




( 11 ) 

tlieir landlords alone*. Luxury, the ufual, and 
perhaps inevitable concomitant of profperity, 
was gaining ground in a manner very alarming 
to tliofe who confidered how far the virtue, the 
liberty, and the happinefs of a nation depend on 
their temperance and fober manners. Men had 
been for fome time in the habit of regulating 
their expenfes by profpecfs formed in fanguine 
hours, when every probability was caught at as 
a certainty, not by their actual profits, or in¬ 
come. The number of coaches, coachees, chairs, 
&c. lately fet up by men in the middle rank of 
life, is hardly credible. And although there had 
been a very great increafe of hackney chairs, yet 
it was hardly ever pofiible to procure one on a 
Sunday, unlefs it was engaged two or three 
days before. Extravagance, in various fhapes, 
was gradually eradicating-the plain and whole- 
fome habits of the city. And although it were 
prefumption to attempt to fcan the decrees of 
heaven, yet few, I believe, will pretend to deny, 

NOTE. 

* The diftrefs arifing from this fource, was perhaps the 
only exception to the general obfervation of theflourilh* 
ing fituadon of Philadelphia. 


( 12 ) 


that fomething was wanting to humble the 
pride of a city, which was running on in full ca¬ 
reer, to the goal of prodigality and diffipation. 

<* r 

However, from November 1792, to the end 
of laft June, the difficulties of Philadelphia were 
extreme. The eftablifhment of the bank of 
Pennfylvania, in embryo for the molt part of that 
time, had arrefted in the two other banks fuch 
a quantity of the circulating fpecie, as embaraf- 
fed aimoft every kind of buiinefs ; to this was 
added the diftrefs ariiing from the very nume¬ 
rous failures in England, which had extremely 
harrailed feveral of our capital merchants. Dur- 
iug this period, many men experienced as great 
difficulties as were ever known in this city §. 
But the opening, in July, of the bank of Penn- 
fylvania, conducted on the mofc liberal princi¬ 
ples, placed buiinefs on its former favourable 

NOTE. 


5 It is with great plea fare, I embrace tills opportunity 
Os declaring, that the very liberal conduct of the bank 
of the united Hates, at this trying feafon, was the means 
ot laving many a deferving and indnfhious man front 


ruin. 


( *3 ) 


footing. Every man looked forward to this fall 
as likely to produce a vaft extenfion of trade. 
But how fleeting are all humnn views ! how un¬ 
certain all plans founded on earthly appearan¬ 
ces ! All thefe flattering profpects vaniflied like 
the bafelefs fabric of a viflon. 

In July, arrived the unfortunate fugitives 
from Cape Francois. And on this occaflon, the 
liberality of Philadelphia was difplayed in a moft 
refpeclable point of light. Nearly 12,000 dol¬ 
lars were in a few days collected for their relief. 
Little, alas ! did many of the contributors, then 
in eafy circumftances, imagine, that a few weeks 
would leave their wives and children dependent 
on public charity, as has fmce unfortunate¬ 
ly happened. An awful inftance of the rapid 
and warning viciffitudes of affairs on this tran- 

O 

fit or y ft age. 

At this time, the deftroying i courge crept in 
among us, and nipped in the bud the faireft 
bloffoms that* imagination could form. And. 
oh ! what a dreadful contraft has fmce taken 
place ! Many of our firft commercial houfes are 
totally diflhived, by the death of the parties. 


( H ) 


and their affairs are neceffarily left in fo derang¬ 
ed a Hate that the Ioffes and d iff relies which 
Bill ft take place, are beyond eftimation. The 
protefts of notes for a few weeks paft, have 
been beyond all former example ; for a great pro¬ 
portion of the principal merchants having left 
the city, and been totally unable, from the flag- 
nation of bulinefs, and diverfion of all their ex¬ 
pected refources, to make any provilion for pay¬ 
ment, moil of their notes have been protefted, 
as they became due. The bank of the united 
ftates, on the 15th of October, palled a refolve, 
empowering their cafhier to renew all difcount- 
ed notes, when the fame drawers and indorfers 
were offered, and declaring that no notes fhould 
be protefted, when the indorfers bound them- 
felves in writing, to be accountable in the fame 
manner as in cafes of proteft. 


Beftdes what we have already fuffered, we 
are menaced with another evil, which proba¬ 
bly at any other period, would not very mate¬ 
rially injure the city ; but if it comes in addition 
to our prefe'nt diftrefs, will operate againfl us a 
very long time. I mean the removal of congrefs. 
The meeting of this body is fixed for the firft 


( i5 ) 

/ 

Monday in December ; and it is not improba¬ 
ble that attempts will be made to prevent their 
next feflion being held here. Appeals will be 
made to their fears. Already the New York pa¬ 
pers announce, “ that as congrefs cannot meet, 
66 agreeably to their adjournment, with any 
“ probability of fafety in Philadelphia, under its 
<c prefent calamitous viiitation, there can be no 
“ doubt of their adjourning to fit in New York, 
“ where the air is perfectly falubrious, the 
cc markets plentiful, and every conveniency 
ready for their accommodation*.” If, at the 
time of their meeting, any trace of the diforder 
remains, the Philadelphians will not urge their 
flay here. But if it be, as there is every 
probability, abfolutely extinguifhed, we place 
too much reliance on their juftice to fufpeclthat 
they will add to the ilroke we have felt. 

For tliefe prefatory obfervations I hope I {hall 

* 

be pardoned. I now proceed to the melancholy 
fubject I have undertaken. 

NOTE. 

♦ 

* Columbian Gazetteer, Odober 17, 1793- 


1 


f ) 


The malignant fever, which has committed 
fuchjravages in Philadelphia, made its appear¬ 
ance here, about the end of July. Dr. Hodge’s 
child, probably the firft victim, was taken ill on 
the 26th or 27th of July, and died on the 6th or 
7th of Auguft:. A Mr. Moore*, in Mr. Denny’s 
lodging houfe, in Water ftreet, was feized oii 
Friday, the 2d of Auguft, and died on Sunday, 
the fourth. Mrs. Parkinfon, who lodged in 
the fame houfe, caught the diforder, on the 3d 
of Auguft, and died on the 7th. 

r On the origin of the diforder, there prevails 
a very great diverftty of opinion. Dr. Hutchin- 
fon maintained that it was not imported, and 
ftated, in a letter which he wrote on the fub- 
ject to Captain Falconer, the health officer of the 
port of Philadelphia, that “ the general opinion 
“ was, that the diforder originated from feme 
u damaged coffee, or other putrified vegeta- 

u ble and animal matters/ 5 To this opinion, 

% \ 

NOTE. 

* This man had been walking along the wharves, 
where~the coffee lay, and at which the Sans Culottes 
was moored, in the morning ; and on his return home, 
was fo extremely ill, as to be obliged to go to bed, from 
which he nrver rofe again. 


C *7 ) 

. “ . » < f r ' 1 ^ 

though he did not give it abfolutely as his own, 
lie feemed ftrongly to incline; and mentioned, 

that at a wharf, a little above Arch-ftreet, 

!• * * ^ 

there was not only a quantity of damaged cof¬ 
fee*, extremely oftenlive, but alfo fome putrid 
animal and vegetable fubftances. The doctor 
relied his opinion, that the diforder was not 
imported, on two circumftances, which prove 
to be miftaken. Viz. that no foreigners or failors 
were infected on the 27th of Auguft, the time 
of writing, and that it had not been found in 
lodging houfes. This opinion was fo far from 
being juft, that the fecond place in which it is 
known to have made its appearance, was a lodg- 
ing houfe, and fome of the earlieft patients 
were French lads. 

Dr. Rulh is of the fame opinion with dr. Hut- 
chinfon, and fays he has in his pofteffion fufficient 
documents to prove that the diforder is not an 
imported one, but of native growth. As he has 

NOTE. 

* The (tench of this coffee was fo exceilively cffenfive, 
that the people in the neighbourhood could hardly bear 
to remain in the bach part of their houfes. 

c, 


( *6 J 


not yet communicated his proofs to the public^ 
it is impoffible to decide on them. 

That it is an imported diforder, is the opini¬ 
on ofalmofl alltlie inhabitants of Philadelphia. 
However, there is much diverfity of fentiment, 
as to the time and manner of its introduction. 
I iliall Hate fome of the various reports current, 
and let the reader judge for himfelf. 

Some affert, that it was brought by II Con- 
llante, capt. Fifcovifch, which arrived here from 
Ragufa, after having touched at Martinico, about 
the beginning of May. This is very unlikely, 
as the lower part of the city, where fhe lay, was 
free uUtil the diforder fpreacl there from the up¬ 
per part. 

t ' •< 

Another opinion is, that it was introduced by 
the Mary, captain Rufh, which arrived here 
on the 7th of Augufl, with fome of the French- 
emigrants from the cape. Rut the exigence of 
the diforder previous to her arrival, fets afide 
this opinion at once. 

Others again fay that a veil'd from Tobago* 


( i9 ) 


which arrived here in July, loft nearly all her 
hands with a malignant fever. In the river, Ihe 
feipped frefh hands, many of whom died. From 
her they believe the diforder fpread. With re- 
fpeci to this report, I cannot aver any thing. 

Another opinion is, that the privateer 
Sans Culottes Marfeillois, with her prize, the 
Flora, which arrived here the 2 2d of July, intro¬ 
duced the fever.The privateer was in a foul, dirty 
condition—her hold very fmall—and perhaps as 
ill calculated for the accommodation of the great 
number of people that were on board, as any 
vefiel that ever crofted the ocean. All her filth was 
emptied at a wharf between Arch and Race-ftreet. 
A dead body, covered with canvafs, lay on board 
the Flora, for fome time, and was feen by mr. 
Lemaigre and other gentlemen A 

Before I difmifs this part of the fubject, it 

* Mr. Vanuxem has publiflied a lengthy flatement to 
prove that the diforder was not brought here by either of 
thefe vefl’els. Dr. Currie and Dr. Catlirall, who have ta¬ 
ken great pains to elucidate the fubjedl, aflert there were 
fundry fick people onboard, in oppolition to mr. Vanux- 
era’s declaration. To their refpertire publications I beg 
Jeave to refer the reader. 


C J 


may not be amifs to mention, that many believe 
we have had two diforders in the city, introdu¬ 
ced about the fame time* the yellow fever, from 
the Weft Indies, and a fpecies of peftilence from 
Marfeilles* ' ' • . y ; • : ' ; 

The mortality began about that part of Water* 
ftreet, where the Mary* the Flora, and the Sans 
Culottes lay - Forfdme time it was entirely confin¬ 
ed to that place and its neighbourhood. Almoft 
every death which occurred in the early fiage of 
the diforder could be without difficulty traced to 
that ftreet. * By /degrees, it fpread, owing to 
the want of precaution, and to communication 
with the infected. It is laid, and generally be¬ 
lieved, that the beds and bedding of thofe who 
died of the diforder, at firft, before the alarm 
went abroad, were fold, and fpread it among the 

buyers. • -i -* - / * ■ ‘ l . * 

»■ . • 

Several perfons were fwept away before any 
great alarm was excited. The firft deaths that 
attracted public notice, and ftruck terror among 
the citizens, were thofe of Peter Afton, on the 
19th, of Mrs. Lemaigre, on the 20th, and of 
Thomas Miller, on the 25th of Auguft. About 
this time began the removals from the city, 
which were for fome weeks fo general, that ah 


\ 


( 21 ) 

V ' 

mo£ every hour in the day, carts, waggons, 
jcoachees, and chairs, were to he feen transport¬ 
ing families and furniture to the country in 
every direction. Bufinefs then became extreme¬ 
ly dull. Mechanics and artifts were unemployed ; 
and the ftreets wore the appearance of gloom 

and melancholy. 

• . ^ \ • 

The fir ft official notice taken of the diforder, 
was on the 2 2d of Auguft, on which day, the 
mayor of Philadelphia, Matthew Clarkfon, efq. 
wrote to the city comrniffioners, and after ac¬ 
quainting them with the ftate of the city, gave 
them, the mcft peremptory orders, to have 
the ftreets properly cleanfed and purified 
by the fcavengers, and ail the filth immedi¬ 
ately hawled away. Thefe orders were re¬ 
peated on the 27th, and Similar ones given to 
the clerks of the market. The 29th the gover¬ 
nor of the State, in his addrefs to the legislature, 
acquainted them, that a contagious diforder 
exifted in the city ; and that he had taken every 
proper meafure to afcertain the origin, nature, 
and extent of it. He likewise allured them that 

i r y ' f> 

the health officer and phyftcian of the port, 
would take every precaution ‘to allay and re¬ 
move the public incmietude. 


( 22 ) 

The a*6th of the fame month, the college of 
phyficians had a meeting, at which they took 
into confideration the nature of the diforder, 
and the means of prevention and of cure. 
They publifhed an addrefs to the citizens, fign- 
ed by the prefident and fecretary, recommend¬ 
ing to avoid all unneceflary intercourfe with the 
infected ; to place marks on the doors or win¬ 
dows where they were ; to pay great attention 
to cleanlinefs and airing the rooms of the lick ; 
to provide a large and airy hofpital in the 
neighbourhood of the city for their reception ; 
to put a hop to the tolling of the bells ; to bury 
thofe who died of the diforder in carriages and 
a-s privately as pofiible ; to keep the ftreets anc| 
wharves clean ; to avoid all fatigue of body and 
n \r d, and handing or fitting in the fun, or in 
!lie open air; to accommodate the drefs to the 
and to exceed rather in warm than 
. cool clothing ; and to avoid intemperance, 

i* 

but to ufe fermented liquors, fuch as wine, beer, 
and cider, with moderation. They likewife de¬ 
clared their opinion, that fires in the fireets 
were very dangerous, if not ineffectual means 
of flopping the progrefs of the fever, and that 
p*ey placed more dependence on the burning of 


( 2 3 ) 


gunpowder. The benefits of vinegar and cam¬ 
phor, they added, were confined chiefly to in¬ 
fected rooms ; and they could not be too often 
ufed on handkerchiefs, or in fuelling bottled, 
by perfons who attended the fick. 

In confequence of this addrefs, the bells were 
immediately flopped from tolling. This was a 
very expedient meafure ; as they had before 
been kept pretty conftantly going the whole 
day, fo as to terrify thofe in health, and drive 
the fick, as far as the influence of imagination 
could produce that effect, to their graves. An 
idea had gone abroad, that the burning of fires 
in the ftreets, would have a tendency to purify 
the air, and arreft the progrefs of the diforder. 
The people had, therefore, almoft every night 
large fires lighted at the corners of the ftreets. 
The 29th, the mayor publifhed a proclamation, 
forbidding this practice. As a fubftitute, many 
had recourfe to the firing of guns, which they 
imagined was a certain preventative of the dif¬ 
order. This was carried fo far, and attended 
with fuch danger, that it was forbidden by the 
mayor’s order, of the 4th of September. 

The number of the infected daily increafrng. 


( 24 ) 

^ » **. * t 

and the exigence of an order againft the admiffi 

> r ‘ « ' 

Tionof perfons labouring under infectious diffi 
eafes into the alms houfe* precluding them from 
a refuge there*, fome temporary place was re- 
quifite, and three of the guardians of the poor 
took poffeflion of the circus, in which mr. Ric¬ 
ketts had lately exhibited his equefcrian feats, 
being the only place that could be procured for 
the purpofe. Thither they fent feven perfons 
afflicted with the malignant fever, where they 
lay in the open air for fome time, and without 
proper affiftancef. Of thefe, one crawled out on 
the commons, where he died at a diftance from 
any houfe. Two died in the circus, one of whom 
was feafonably removed ; the other lay in a ftate 
of putrefaction for above forty eight hours, 
owing to the difficulty of procuring any perfonr 

NOTE. 

* At this period, the number of paupers in the alms 
houfe was between three and four hundred ; and the ma¬ 
nagers, apprehenfive of fpreading the di-ford er among 
them, enforced the above-mentioned order, which had 
been entered into along time before. They, however, fop- 
plied beds and bedding, and all the money in their trea- 
fnry, for their relief, out of that houfe. 

f High wages were offered for nurfes for thefe poor 
peopje—hut none could he procured. 


( 2 5 .) 

to remove him. On this occafion occurred an 
iftftance of courage in a fervant girl, of which 
at that time few men were capable. The carter, 
who finally .undertook to remove the cqrpfe* 
having no afliftant, and being unable alone to 
put it into the coffin, was on the point of relin- 
quiftiing his defign, and quitting the place. The 
girl perceived him, and underflanding the dif¬ 
ficulty he laboured under, offered her fervices, 
provided he would not inform the family with 
whom fhe lived. She accordingly helped him to 
put the body into the coffin, which was by that 
time crawling with maggots, and in fuch a ftate 
as to be ready to fall in pieces. It gives me plea- 
fure to add, that fhe ftill lives, notwithftanding 
her very hazardous exploit. 

The inhabitants of the neighbourhood of the 
circus took the alarm, and threatened to burn or 
deftroy it, unlefs the fick were removed ; and 
it is believed they would have actually carried 
their threats into execution, had a compliance 
been-delayed a day longer^ 

The 29th, feven of the guardians of the poor 
lud a conference with fonie of the city magifi 

D 


( 26 ) 


tfates on the fubject of the fever, at which it 
was agreed to be indifpenfably neceffary that a 
fuitable houfe, as an hofpital, fhould be provided 
near the city for the reception of the infected 
poor. 

In confequence, the fame day, the guardians 
of the poor refolved to ufe their utmoft exer¬ 
tions to procure fuch a honfe out of town, and 
as near thereto, as might be practicable, conftft- 
ent with the fafety of the inhabitants, for the 
poor who were or might be afflicted with conta¬ 
gious diforders, and be deftitute of the means of 
providing neceffary affiftance otherwife ; to en¬ 
gage phylicians, nurfes, attendants, and all ne- 
ceffaries for their relief in that houfe ; to ap¬ 
point proper perfons in each diftrid, to enquire 
after fiich poor as might be afflicted ; to adminif- 
ter affiftance to them in their own houfes, and, 
if neceffary, to remove them to the hofpital. 
They referved to themfelves at the fame time, 
the liberty of drawing on the mayor for fuch 
fums as might be neceffary to carry their re- 
folves into effect. 

Conformably to thefe refolves, a committee of 


( 2 7 ) 


the guardians was appointed to make enquiry 
for a fuitable place; and after Uriel: examina¬ 
tion, they judged that a building adjacent to 
Bufhhill, the manfion houfe of William Hamil¬ 
ton, efq. was the bell calculated for the pur- 
pofe. And that gentleman being abfent, and 
having no agent in the city, and the great ur¬ 
gency of the cafe admitting no delay, eight of 
the guardians, accompanied by Hilary Baker, 
efq. one of the city aldermen, with the concur¬ 
rence of the governor, proceeded to the build¬ 
ing they had fixed upon ; and meeting with 
fome oppofition from a tenant who occupied it, 
they took pofieffion of the manfion houfe itfelf, 
to which, on the fame evening, the 31ft of Au- 
guft, they fent the four patients who remained 
at the circus. 

Shortly after this, the guardians of the poor 
for the city, except James Wilfon, Jacob Tom¬ 
kins, jun. and William Sanfom, ceafed the 
performance of their duties, nearly the whole 
of them having removed out of the city. Before 
this virtual vacation of office, they pafled a re- 
folve againfi: the admiffion of any paupers what¬ 
ever into the alms-houfe during the prevalence 


( 28 ) 


of the diforder. The caufe of entering into this 
order, was, that fome paupers, who had been 
admitted previous thereto, with a certificate 
from the phyficians, of their being free from the 
infection, had neverthelefs died of it. The whole 
care of the poor of the city, the providing for 
Bulh-hill, fending the fick there, and burying 
the dead, devolved, therefore, on the above 
three guardians. It muff give the reader great 
forrow to hear, that two of them, James Wil¬ 
lem, and Jacob Tomkins, excellent and indefati¬ 
gable young men, whofe fervices were at that 
time of very great importance, fell facrifices in 
the caufe of humanity. The other, William San- 
fom, waslikewife, in the execution of his dange¬ 
rous office, feized with the diforder, and on 
the brink of the grave, but was fo fortunate as 
to efcape. 

p ■ * - * * 

The confternation of the people of Philadel¬ 
phia at this period was carried beyond all 
bounds. Difmay and affright were vifible in 
almoft every perfon’s countenance. Mofi: peo¬ 
ple who could by any means make it convenient, 
fled from the city. Of thofe who remained, ma¬ 
ny fhut themfelves up in their houfes, and were 


afraid to walk the ffreets. The confumption of 
gunpowder and nitre in houfes as a preventa^ 
tive, was inconceivable. Many were almoft in- 
ceffantly purifying, (cowering, and whitewafli- 
ing their rooms. Thofe who ventured abroad, 
had handkerchiefs or fponges impregnated with 
vinegar or camphor, at their nofes, or elfe brid¬ 
ling bottles with the thieves’ vinegar. Others 
carried pieces of tar in their hands, or pockets, 
or camphor bags tied round their necks. The 
corpfes of the moft refpectable citizens, even of 
thofe who did not die of the epidemic, were 
carried to the grave, on the (hafts of a chair, 
the horfe driven by a negro, unattended by a 
friend or relation, and without any fort of ce¬ 
remony. People (hifted their courfe at the fight 
of a hearfe coming towards them. Many never 
walked on the foot path, but went into the 
middle of the ffreets, to avoid being infected in 
palling by houfes wherein people had died. Ac¬ 
quaintances and friends avoided each other in 
the ffreets, and only lignified their regard by a 
cold nod. The old cuftom of (haking hands fell 
into fuch general difufe, that many were affront¬ 
ed at even the offer of the hand. A perfon with 
a crape, or any appearance of mourning, was 


( 3 ° ) 


feunned like a viper. And many valued them- 
felves highly on the Ikill and addrefs with which 
they got to windward of every perfon they met. 
Indeed it is not probable that London, at the 
laft ftage of the plague, exhibited ftronger marks 
of terror, than were to be feen in Philadelphia, 
from the 26th or 27th of Augufl till pretty 
late in September. When people fummoned up 
refolution to walk abroad, and take the air, the 
lick cart conveying patients to the hofpital, or 
the hearfe carrying the dead to the grave, 
which were travelling almofl the whole day, 
foon damped their fpirits, and plunged them a- 
gain into defpondency. 

While affairs were in this deplorable flate, 
and people at the loweft ebb of defpair, we 
cannot be aftonifhed at the frightful fcenes that 
were acted, which feemed to indicate a total dif- 
folution of the bonds of fociety in the nearefl 
and deareft connexions. Who, without horror, 
can reflect on a hufband deferting his wife, 
united to him perhaps for twenty years, in the 
laft agony—a wife unfeelingly abandoning her 
hufband on his death bed—parents forfaking 
their only children—children ungratefully 


( 3 1 ) 


flying from their parents, and refigning 
them to chance, often without an enquiry 
after their health or fafety—mailers hurrying 
off their faithful fervants to Bufhhill, even on 
fufpicion of the fever, and that at a time, when, 
like Tartarus, it was open to every viiitant, but 
never returned any—fervants abandoning ten¬ 
der and humane mailers, who only wanted a 
little care to reilore them to health and ufeful- 
nefs—who, I fay, can even now think of thefe 
things without horror ? Yet fuch were daily 
exhibited in every quarter of our city. 

Thefe defertions produced fcenes of diflrefe 
and mifery, of which few parallels are to be met 
with, and which nothing could palliate, but the 
extraordinary public panic, and the great law 
of felf prefervation, the dominion of which ex¬ 
tends over the whole animated world. Many 
men of affluent fortunes, who have given em¬ 
ployment and fuilenance to hundreds every day 
in the year, have been abandoned to the care of 
a negro, after their wives, children, friends, 
clerks, and fervants, had fled away, and left 
them to their fate. In many cafes, no money 
£Ould procure proper attendance. With the 


( 3 2 ) 

poor, the cafe was, as might be expected, infi¬ 
nitely worfe than with the rich. Many of thefe 
have perilhed, without a human being to hand 
them a drink of water, to adminifter medicines, 
or to perform any charitable office for them. 
Various inftances have occurred, of dead bodies 
found lying in the ftreets, of perfons who had no 
houfe or habitation, and could procure no fheiter. 

A woman, whofe hufband had juft died of 
the fever, was feized with the pains of labour, 
and had nobody to affift her, as the women in 
the neighbourhood were afraid to go into the 
houfe. She lay for a conliderable time in a de¬ 
gree of anguifh that will not bear defcription. 
At length, fhe ftruggied to reach the window, 
and cried out for affiftance. Two men, paffing 
by, went up ftairs ; but they came at too late 
a ftage.—-She was ftriving with death—and ac¬ 
tually in a few minutes expired in their arms. 

*■ ** . *■ 

■ ^ , ‘ ’ 1 , * • 

A woman, whofe hufband and two children 
lay dead in the room with her, was in the fame 
fituation, without a midwife, or any other perfon 
to aid her. Her cries at the window brought up 
one of the carters employed by the committee 


( j3 ) 

for the relief of the fick. With his afliftance, 
{he was delivered of a child, which died in a few 
minutes, as did the mother, who was utterly 

y V* * t. , / ■» 

exhaufted by her labour, by the diforder, and 
by the dreadful fpectacle before her. And thus 
lay in one room, no lefs than five dead bodies, 
an entire family, carried off in an hour or two. 
Many inftances have occurred, of refpectable 
women, who, in their lying-in, have been oblig¬ 
ed to depend on fervant women for afliftance 
—and fome have had none but their hufbands. 
Some of the midwives were dead— ; and others 
had left the city. 

A fervant girl, belonging to a family in this 
city, in which the fever had prevailed, was ap- 
prehenfive of danger, and refolved to remove 
to a relation’s houfe, in the country. She was, 
however, taken fick on the road, and returned 
to town, where Ihe could find no perfon to 
receive her. One of the guardians of the poor 
provided a cart, and took her to the aims houfe, 
into which (he wasrefufed admittance. She w r as 
brought back, and the guardian offered five dol¬ 
lars to procure her a fingle night’s lodging, but 
in vain. And in fine, after every effort made to 

E 


( 34 ) 

provide her fhelter, flie abfolutely expired in the 
cart. 

\ 

To relate all the frightful cafes of this nature 
that occurred, would fill a volume. Let thefe 
few fuffice. But I mull obferve, that moft of 
them happened in the firft ftage of the public 
panic. Afterwards, when the citizens recovered a 
little from their fright, they became rare. 

Great as was the calamity of Philadelphia, it 
was magnified in the moft extraordinary man¬ 
ner. The hundred tongues of rumour were 
never more fuccefsfully employed, than on this 
melancholy occafion. The terror of the inhabi¬ 
tants of all the neighbouring ftates was excited 
by letters from Philadelphia, diftributed by 
every mail, many of which told tales of woe, 
whereof hardly a fingle circumftance was true, 
but which were every where received with impli¬ 
cit faith. The diftreiTes of the city, and the fata¬ 
lity of the diforder, were exaggerated as it 
were to fee how fair credulitv could be carried.. 

m 

The plague of London was, according to ru¬ 
mour, hardly more fatal than our yellow fever, 
©ur citizens died fo faft, that there was hardly 


( 35 ) 


enough of people to bury them. Ten, or fifteen, 
or more were faid to be caft into one hole together, 
like fo many dead beafts*. One man, who could 
find his feelings eafy enough, to be facetious on 
the fubjed, acquainted his correfpondent, that 
the only bufinefs carrying on, was grave diggings 
©r rather pit digging f. And at a time when the 

, - 

NOTES. 

• The following extract appeared in a Norfolk paper 
about the middle of September : 

Extract of a letter from Philadelphia, to a gentleman in 

Norfolk, Sept. 9. 

<i Half the inhabitants of this city have already fed 

t 

to different parts, on account of the peflilential diforder 
£< that prevails here. The few citizens who remained in 
<( this place, die in abundance, fo fafl that they drag them 
away, like dead beafls, a?idput ten, or fifteen, or more in a hole 
< ( together. All the fores are fbut up. I am afraid this city 
C ' 1 will be ruined : for nobody will come near it hereafter. 
<c I am this day removing my family from this fatal 
u place.” 

f From a New York paper of October 2. 

Ex.tr aft of a letter from a gentleman in Philadelphia, dated 

Sept 23. 

“ The papers tnuft have amply informed you of the 
te melancholy fituation of this city for five or fix weeks 
“ paft. Grave-digging has been the only bufinefs carrying 
“ on ; and indeed I may fay ©f late, pit.digging, where 


* 


• ( 36 ) 

deaths did not exceed from forty to fifty daily, 
many men had the modefty to write, and others, 
throughout the continent, the credulity to be- 
lieve, that we buried from one hundred to one 
hundred and fifty*.' Thbufands were fwept off 

. • 1W i i \ K . . . ■: 

NOTES. 

“ people are interred indifcriminately in three tiers of 
ff coffins. From the mod: accurate obfervations I can make 
upon , matters, 1 think I fpeak within bounds,, when 
“ I fay, eighteen hundred perfons ha^e periffied (I do not 
“ fay all of the yellow fever) fince its fjrft appearance.” 

•» ,y • ■ * 

* From the Maryland Journal, of Sept. 2*]th. 

Extrctft 'of a letter from : Philadelphia, dated Sept. 20th t 
“ .The difovder feems to be much the fame in this 
“ place, as 'when I laft wrote you : about 1500 have fal- 
<< len victims to it. Lak Sunday, Monday, and Tuefday, 
“ there were not'defs than 356 died with thisfevere difbr- 
“ der ! ! 1 -As I informed you before; this is the mod: dif- 
treked place I ever beheld. Whole families go in the dif- 
“ order, in the courfe of twelve hours. * For your own 
“ lakes, ufe all poffible means to keep it out of Balti- 
“ more.” • V ■ 

ExtraCl of a letter from Philadelphia, cf the fame date : 

“ The malignant fever wli-ich prevails here, is kill in- 
“ creafing.' Report fays, that above one hundred have 
“been buried per day for fome time paft. It is how 
“thought to be more infectious titan ever. I think you 
“ ought to be very careful with refpedfc to f admitting 
“ perfons from Philadelphia into your town.” 



( 37 ) 


in three or four weeks*. And the nature and 
danger of the diforder, were as much mifrepre- 
fented, as the number of the dead. It was faid, 
in defiance of every day’s experience, to ba as 
inevitable by all expofed to the contagion, as the 
ftroke of fate. 

y ■* J ; ■ 

The effects produced by thefe letters, were 
fuch as might be reafonably expected. The con- 

fternation fpread though the feveral ftates like 

* _ 

wild-fire. The firft public a6t that took place on 
the fubject, as far as I can learn, was at Chefler- 
town, in Maryland. At this place, a meeting was 
held on the i oth of September, at which feveral 
refolves were entered into, which, after fpecify- 

NOTE. 

* From a Cheflertown paper, of Sept. io, 

Extrai f? of a letter from a refpeftable young mechanic, in 

Philadelphia , to his friend in this town, dated the fh in ft. 

« It is now a very mortal time in this city. Theyellow 
“ fever hath killed fome thoufands of the inhabitants. 
4< Eight thousand mechanics, befides other people, have 
“left the town. Every matter in the city, of our branch 
“of bufinefs, is gone.” The u fome thoufands" that were 
killed at that time did not amount to three hundred. 
The authentic information in this letter, was circulated 
in every ttate in the union, by the news papers. 


mg that the diforder had extended to Trenton, 
Princeton, Woodbridge, and Elizabeth-town, 
on the poll road to New York, directed, that 
notice fhould be fent to the owners of the ftages 
not to allow them to pafs through the town, 
while there fhould be reafon to expect danger 
therefrom ; that a committee of health and in¬ 
flection fhould be appointed, to provide for the 
relief of fuch poor inhabitants as might take the 
diforder, and likewife for fuch ftrangers as 
might be infected with it. They at the fame ap¬ 
pointed feven perfons as this committee, 
with power to call a general meeting in par¬ 
ticular fpecified cafes. In confequence of 
thefe refolves, the Eaftern fhore line of 
if ages was ftopt in the courfe of a few days 
afterwards. 

The alarm in New York was fir ft officially 
announced by a letter from the mayor to the 
practifing phyftcians, dated Sept, u, in which 
he requested them to report to him in writing 
the names of all fuch perfons as had arrived, 
or fhould arrive from Philadelphia, or any other 
place, by land or water, and were or fhould be 
fick 5 that fuch as fhould be deemed fubjecls of 


infectious difeafes, might be removed out of 
the city. He notified them, that the corporation 
had taken meafures to provide a proper place 
for an hofpital, for fuch perfons as might un¬ 
happily become fubjefts of the fever in New 
York. In this letter the mayor declared his opi¬ 
nion clearly, that the intercourfe with Philadel¬ 
phia, could not be lawfully interrupted by any 
power in the Hate. The 12th appeared a procla¬ 
mation from governor Clinton, which, refer¬ 
ring to the “ aft to prevent the bringing in, and 
<c fpreading of infectious diforders,” prohibited., 
in the terms of that aft, all veffels from Phila¬ 
delphia, to approach nearer to the city of New 
York, than Bedlow’s ifland, about two miles 
diftant, till duly difcharged. The filence of this 
proclamation, refpefting pafiengers by land, 
feemed to imply that the governors opinion on 
the fubjeft, was the fame as that of the mayor. 

The fame day, at a meeting of the citizens, 
the necefiity of taking fome precautions was 
unanimoully agreed upon, and a committee of 
feven appcsinted to report a plan to a meet¬ 
ing to be held next day. Their report, which 
was unanimoully agreed to, the 13th, recom- 


mended to hire two phyficians, to affift the 
phyfician of the port in his examinations of 
veffels ; to check, as much as poffible, the inter- 
courfe by ftages; to acquaint the proprietors 
of the fouthern ftages, that it was the earneft 
wifti of the inhabitants, that their carriages and 
boats iliould not pafs during the prevalence of 
the diforder in Philadelphia ; and to requeft the 
practitioners of phytic to report, without fail, 
every cafe of fever, to which they might be 
called, occurring in any perfons that had or 
might arrive from Philadelphia, or have inter- 
courfe with them. Not fatisfied with thefe mea- 
fures, the corporation, on the 17th, came to a 
refolution to flop all intercourfe between the 
two cities; and for this purpofe guards were 
placed at the different landings, with orders to 
fend back every perfon coming from Philadel¬ 
phia ; and if any were difcovered to have 
arrived after that date, they were to be 
directly fent back. All perfons taking in lodg¬ 
ers, were called upon to give information of all 
people of the above defcription, under pain of 
being profecuted according to law. All good 
citizens were required to give information to 
the mayor, or any member of the committee, of 
any breach in the premifes. 


All thefe Uriel: precautions being eluded by 
the fears and the vigilance of the fugitives from 
Philadelphia, on the 23d there was a meeting 
held, of delegates from the feveral wards of the 
city, in order to adopt more effectual meafures. 
At this meeting, it was refolved to eftablifh a 
night watch of not lefs than ten citizens in each 
ward, to guard againft fuch as might efcape them 
byday.Notyet eafe.d of their fears, they next day 
publifhed an addrefs, in which they mentioned, 
that notwithstanding their utmofl vigilance, 
many perfons had been clandeftinely landed 
upon the fhores of New York ifland. They 
therefore again called upon their fellow citizens 
to be cautious how they received Strangers into 
their houfes ; not to fail to report all fuch to 
the mayor immediately upon their arrival ; to 
remember the importance of the occafion ; and 
to confider what reply they fliould make to the 
juft refentment of their fellow citizens, whofe 
lives they might expole by a criminal neglect, 
or infidelity. They likewife declared their ex¬ 
pectation, that thofe who kept the different 
ferries on the fliores of New Jerfey and Staten 
ifland, would pay fuch attention to their ad¬ 
drefs, as not to tranfport any perfon but to the 

F 


\ 


I 

( 42 ) 

public landings, and that in the day time, be- 
tween fun and fun. The 30th they publifhed i 
lengthy addrefs, recapitulating the various pre- 
cautions they had taken—the nature of the 
diforder—and the numbers who had died out of 
Philadelphia, without communicating it to any 
one. They at the fame time refolved, that 
goods, bedding, and clothing, packed up in 
Philadelphia, fliould, previous to their being 
brought into New Yofk, be unpacked and ex- 
pofed to the open air in fome well-ventilated 
place, for at ieaft 48 hours ; that all linen on 

■ \ r ' r ‘. Y . ; v. 

cotton clothes, or bedding,which had been ufed, 
fliould be well walked in feveral waters ; and af¬ 
terwards, that the whole, both filch as had been, 
and fuch as had not been ufed, fliould be hung 
Up in a clofe room, and well fmoked with the 
fumes of brimftone for one day, and after that 
again expofed for at leaf: twenty four hours to 
the open air; and that the boxes, trunks, or 
chefts, in which they had been packed, fliould 
be cleaned and aired in the fame manner ; after 
which, being repacked, and fuch evidence given 
of their purification, as the committee fliould re¬ 
quire, permiflion might be had to bring them 
into the city. * ! 


\ ^ 

( 43 ) 

The nth of October, they likewife refolved,. 
that they would coniider and publilh to th^ 
world, as enemies to the welfare of the city, and 
the lives of its inhabitants, all thofe who fliould 
be fofelfiih and hardy, as to attempt to intro- 
trpduce any goods, wares, merchandize, bed¬ 
ding, baggage, &c. imported from, or packed up 
in Philadelphia, contrary to the rules prefcribed 
by that body, who were, they faid, deputed 
to exprefs the will of their fellow citizens. 
They recommended to the inhabitants to 
withftand any temptation of profit, which 
might attend the purchafe of goods in Philadel- 

* 4 * 

pirn, as. no emolument to an individual, they 
added, could warrant the hazard to which fuch 
conduct might expofe the city. Befides all thefe 
refolves, they publifhed daily fiiatements of the 
health of the city, to allay the fears of their fel¬ 
low citizens. 

* i \ ■ . > 

I did not choofe to interrupt this account of 
the proceedings of the committee of health, to> 
mention, in order of time, that the clergy of 
New York had a meeting, on the 16th of Sep¬ 
tember, and unanimoufly agreed to fet apart 
Friday, the 2cth, as a day of humiliation, faft- 


i 


('44 ) 


ing, and prayer to Almighty God, for the pre- 
fervation of their city, from the fever, and for 
the comfort and fupport of their brethren in 
Philadelphia, in the feafon of their diltrefs. The 
Dutch fynod of New York had a meeting the 
firft week in October, at which they agreed that 
thofe churches under their care, which had not 
yet obferved a day of failing and prayer, fhould 
devote the fecond Wednefday in ‘November to, 
that purpofe. 

The inhabitants of Trenton and Lamberton ai- 
fociated on the 13th of Sept, and on the 17th 
pahed feveral refolutions to guard themfelves 
againil the contagion. They refolved that a total 
flop fhould be put to the landing of all perfons 
from Philadelphia, at any ferry or place from 
Lamberton to Howell’s ferry, four miles above 
Trenton; that the intercourfe by water ihould be 
prohibited between Lamberton, or the head of 
tide water, and Philadelphia ; and that all boats 
from Philadelphia, fhould be prevented fromland- 
ing either goods or paffengers any where between 
Borde-ntown and the head of tide water ; that no 
perfon whatever fhould be permitted to come 
from Philadelphia, or Kenfmgton, while the fe- 


C 45 ) 


ver continued ; that all perfons who fliould go 
from within the limits of the affociation, to ei¬ 
ther of thofe places, fliould he prevented from 
returning during the continuance of the fever ; 
and finally, that their handing committee fliould 
enquire whether any perfons, not inhabitants, 
who had lately come from places infected, and 
were therefore likely to be infected themfelves, 
were within the limits of the affociation, and if 
fo, that they fliould be obliged inftantly to leave 
the faid limits. The people of Jerfey obferved 
the i ft of October, as a day of fatting and prayer, 
for the fame purpofe as thofe of New York. 

The 12th of September, the governor of Ma¬ 
ryland publiftied a proclamation, fubjecting all 
veflels from Philadelphia to the performance 
of a quarantine, not exceeding forty days, or 
as much lefs as might be judged fafe by the 
health officers. It further ordered, that all per¬ 
fons going to Baltimore, to Havre de Grace, 
to the head of Elk, or, by any other route, 
making their way into that ftate from Phila* 
delphia, or any other place known to be infect¬ 
ed with the malignant fever, fliould be fubject 
to be examined, and prevented from proceed- 


( 4^ ) 


ing, by perfons to be appointed for that pur- 
pofe, and who were to take the advice and 
opinion of the medical faculty in every cafe, in 
order that private affairs and purfuits might 
not be unneceffarily impeded. This proclama¬ 
tion appointed two health officers for Balti¬ 
more. 

The people of Baltimore met the 13th of 
September, and refolved that none of their ci¬ 
tizens ihould receive into their houfes any per¬ 
fons coming from Philadelphia, or other in¬ 
fected place, without producing a certificate 
from the health officer, or officer of patrole ; 
and that any perfon who violated that refolve, 
ihould be held up to public view, as a proper 
object for the refentment of the town. The 
14th, a party of militia was difpatched to take 
pofTeffion of a pafs on the Philadelphia road, 
about two miles from Baltimore, to prevent the 
entrance of any paffengers from Philadelphia 
without licenfe. Dr. Worthington, the health 
officer ftationed at this pafs, was directed to re¬ 
fute permiffion to perfons afflicted with any 
malignant complaint, or who had not been ab- 
lent from Philadelphia, or other infected place* 


( 47 ) 

at leaft feven days. The weftern hi ore line of 
Philadelphia ftages was hopped about the 18th 
or 19th. 

* * . 't + * ~ , 

r y J ^ ‘ ’ > « \ t 

, * r ^ r f * 

The 30th, the committee of health refolded' 

' * S ‘ *) * « . , 

that no inhabitant of Baltimore, who fhould 

* »- r • > • m 

viftt perfons from Philadelphia, while perform¬ 
ing quarantine, Ihould be permitted to enter 

• r f 

the town, until the time of quarantine was ex¬ 
pired, and until it was certainly known that the 
perfons he had viiited were free from the infect 
tion ; and that thenceforward no goods capable 
of conveying infection, that had been landed or 

packed up in Philadelphia, or other infe&ed 

- < 

place, Ihould be permitted to enter the town— 
nor ihould any baggage of travellers be admit- 

* • r 

ted, until it had been expofed to the open air 
fuch length of time as the health officer might 
direct. 

The 25th of September, the inhabitants of 
Havre de Grace, refolved that no perfon ihould 
be allowed to crofs the Sufquehannah river at that 
place, who did not bring a certificate of his not 
having lately come from Philadelphia, or any 
ssthcr infcftcd place ; and that the citizens of 



( 48. ; 


Havre would embody themfelves to prevent any 
one from eroding without fuch a certificate. 

At Hagerflown, on the 3d of October, it 
was refolved, that no citizen fhould receive into 
his houfe any perfon coming from Philadelphia, 
fuppofed to be infected with the malignant fe¬ 
ver, until he or the produced a certificate from 
a health officer ; that fliould any citizen contra¬ 
vene the above refolution, he fliould be proferib- 
ed from all fociety with his fellow citizens ; that 
the clothing fent to the troops then in that town, 
{hould not be received there, nor differed to 
come within feven miles thereof; that if any 
perfon from Philadelphia, or other infected 
place, fliould arrive there, he fliould be required 
inftantly to depart, and in cafe of refufal or ne¬ 
glect, be compelled to go without delay ; that 
no merchant, or other perfon, fhould be permit¬ 
ted to bring into the town, or open therein, 
any goods brought from Philadelphia, or other 
Infected place, until permitted by the com¬ 
mittee. y and that the citizens of the town, and 
its vicinity, fhould enrol themfelves as a guard, 
and patrole fuch roads and paffes as the commit¬ 
tee fliould direct. 


( 49 ) 


The governor of Virginia, on the 17th of 
September, iffued a proclamation, ordering all 
veffels from Philadelphia, the Grenades, and the 
iiland of Tobago, to perform a quarantine of 
twenty days, at the anchorage ground, off Cra- 
ney iiland, near the mouth of Elizabeth river. 

The corporation of Alexandria ftationed a 
look-out boat, to prevent all veffels bound to 
that port, from approaching nearer than one 
mile, until after examination by the health of¬ 
ficer. 

The people of Winchefter placed guards at 
every avenue of the town leading from the Pa- 
tomac, to flop all fufpected perfons, packages, 
&c. coming from Philadelphia till the health 
officers fhould infpect them, and either forbid 
or allow them to pafs. 

The legiilature of Maffachufetts happened to 
be actually in feffion, at the time the alarm 
fpread ; and they accordingly paffed an expreis 
act for guarding againft the impending danger. 
This act directed that the felecitmen in the dif¬ 
ferent towns fhould be authorifed to fcop and 

G 


( 50 ) 


examine any perfons, baggage, merchandize* 
or effects, coming, or fuppofed to be com¬ 
ing into the towns refpectively, from Philadel¬ 
phia, or other place infected, or fuppofed to be 
infected ; and fhould it appear to them, or to 
any officers whom they Ihouid appoint,. that 
any danger of infection was to be apprehended 
from fuch perfons, effects, baggage, or mer¬ 
chandize, they were authorifed to detain or 
remove the fame to fuch place as they might 
fee proper, in order that they might be puri¬ 
fied from infection ; or to place any perfons fo 
coming, in fuch places, and under fuch regu¬ 
lations as they might judge neceffary for the 
public fafety. In purfuance of this act, the go¬ 
vernor iffued a proclamation to carry it into ef¬ 
fect, the 21ft of September. 

The feleftmcn of Bolton, on the 24th, pub- 
Iffhed their regulations of quarantine, which 
ordered, that on the arrival of any veffel from 
Philadelphia, lire fhould be detained at, or near 
Rainsford’s Iftand, to perform a quarantine not 
exceeding thirty days, during which time fhe 
fhould be cleanfed with vinegar, and the ex- 
plod on of gunpowder between the decks and 


s 


( * * < 

( 5 ‘ ) ' 

in the cabin, even though there were no tick 
perfons on board ; that in cafe there fliould be 
lick on board, they fliould be removed to an 
hofpital, where they fliould be detained till 
they recovered, or were long enough to afcer- 
tain that they had not the infection ; that every 
veflel, performing quarantine, fliould be de¬ 
prived of its boat, and no boat fuffered to ap¬ 
proach it, but by fpecial permiflion ; that if any 
perfon fliould efcape, he fliould be inftantly ad- 
vertifed, in order that he might be apprehended 
that any perfons coming by land from Philadel¬ 
phia, fliould not be allowed to enter Bo Aon, 
until twenty-one days after their arrival, and 
their effects, baggage, and merchandize fliould 
be opened, warned, and fumigated with vinegar 
and repeated exploflons of gunpowder. In the 
concluflon, the felectmen called upon the inhabi¬ 
tants cc to ufe their utmoA vigilance and activity 
to bring to condign punifhment any perfon who 
fliould be fo daring and lofl to every idea of 
humanity, as to come into the town from any 
place fappofed to be infected, thereby endanger¬ 
ing the lives of their fellow men.” 

The governor of Rhode Ifland, the 21R of 


( 5 * ) 



September, iffued a proclamation, directing the 
town councils and other officers, to ufe their 
utmoft vigilance to caufe the law to prevent 
the fpreading of contagious diforders to be moft 
ftrictly executed, more efpecially with refpeT 
to all veffels which ffiould arrive in that ftate 
from the Weft Indies, Philadelphia, and New- 
York; the extenfton to the latter place was ow¬ 
ing to the danger apprehended from the inter- 
courfe between it and Philadelphia. 

The 28th of September, the governor of 
North Carolina publilhed his proclamation, re¬ 
quiring the commiffioners of navigation in the 
different ports, and the commiffioners of the 
different towns in the faid ftate, to appoint cer¬ 
tain places, where all veflels from the port of 
Philadelphia, or any other place where the ma¬ 
lignant fever might prevail, fhould perform 
quarantine for fuch number of days as they 
might think proper. 

The inhabitants of Charlefton do not feem to 
have been far behind their neighbours, in their 
apprehenftons or their cautions. The 8th of Oct. 
they had a meeting, at which they refolved, 


( 53 . ) 

that no veffel from the river Delaware, either 
dire&ly or after having touched at any other 
port of the united ftates, fhould be permitted 
to pafs Charlefton bar, till the citizens have 
again affembled, and declared themfelves fatis- 
fied that the diforder has ceafed in Philadelphia,, 
If any veffel, contrary thereto, fhould crofs the 
bar, his excellency fhould be requefted to com¬ 
pel it to quit the port, and return to fea. Be¬ 
fore this meeting, veffels from Philadelphia had 
been obliged to perform quarantine; but by 
what regulation, I cannot afcertain. 

The governor of Georgia, on the 4th of 
OTober, publifhed a proclamation, ordering all 
x veffels from Philadelphia, which fhould arrive 
in Savannah river, to remain in Tybee creek, or 
in other parts at like diffance from the town, 
until the health officer of the port fhould, on 
examination, certify, that no malignant or con¬ 
tagious difeafe was on board. All perfons con¬ 
travening this proclamation, were to be profe- 
cuted, and fubjecled to the pains and penalties 
by law pointed out. 

The people of Augufta, in that ftate, were 


. ’ ( 54) 

as aclive and vigilant as their northern neigh¬ 
bours, to guard againfl the threatening dangers. 

.. • • ' ; ' s 

1 ' ■ v •- 

While our citizens were thus profcribed in fe- 
veral cities and towns—hunted up like felons in 
feme—and debarred admittance and turned 
back in others, whether found or inferred—it 
is with extreme fatisfaction I have to record a 
conduct totally different, which cannot fail to 
make an indelible impreflion on the minds of 
the people of Philadelphia, and qdl forth the 
moil lively emotions of gratitude. 

• ) . . ‘ . : ") ' ' _ ' 

A refneflable number of f le inhabitants of 

JL 

Springfield, in New jerfey, met the firfi day 
of October, and after a full confideration of the 
difireffes of our citizens, palled a refolve, offer¬ 
ing their town as an afylum to the people flying 
from Philadelphia, and directing their commit¬ 
tee to provide a fuitable place as an hoipital for 
fuch of them as might be feized with the pre¬ 
vailing malignant fever. 

I have been informed, by a perfon of credit, 
that the inhabitants of Elizabeth town have 
purfued the fame liberal plan, as thofe of 
Springfield 5 but have not been able to procure 


( 55 ) 

a copy of their refolves or proceedings on the 
fubject. 

An afylum has likewife been offered to Phila¬ 
delphians, by feveral of the inhabitants of Elk- 
ton, in Maryland; and the offer was couched 
in terms of the utmoft fympathy for our fuf- 
fering^s. 

O 

The inftances of this kind, through this ex- 
tenlive country, have been very few; but they 
are therefore only the more precious, and 
ought to be held up to public approbation. 
May they operate on people, at a future day, 
in fimilar cafes of dreadful calamity-—and 
teach them to temper their caution with as 
much humanity and tendernefs to the diftreffed 
fugitives, as prudence will allow—and not in¬ 
volve in one indifcriminate profcription the 
healthy and infected* 

In the mean time, the fit nation of affairs in 
Philadelphia, became daily more and more feri- 
ous. The three guardians of the poor for the 
city, who, as I have faid, continued to acl, were 
quite opprelfed with the labours of their office, 
which increafed to fiich a degree, that thev 


C 55 ) 


were utterly unable to execute them. The num¬ 
ber of difeafed perfons became very great. 
Owing to the general terror, nurfes, carters, 
and attendants could hardly be procured. Thus 
eircumflanced, the mayor of the city, on the 
10th of September, publifhed an addrefs to the 
citizens, announcing that the guardians of the 
poor, who remained, were in diilrefs for want 
of alliflance, and inviting fuch benevolent citi¬ 
zens as felt for the general diilrefs, to lend their 
aid. In confequence of this advertifement, a 
meeting of the citizens was held at the city 
hall, on the 12th of September, at which very 
few attended, from the univeral conflernation 
that prevailed. The ftate of the poor was fully 
confidered ; and ten citizens, Ifrael Ifrael, Sa¬ 
muel Wethcrill, Thomas Wiftar, Andrew Ad- 
gate, Caleb Lownes, Henry Deforeft, Thomas 
Peters, Jofeph Inlkeep, Stephen Girard, and 
John Mafon, offered themfelves to aflifl the 
guardians of the poor. At this meeting, a com¬ 
mittee was appointed to confer with the phyfi- 
cians who had the care of Bufh-hill. This 
committee , reported next evening, that the 
hofpital wa;s in very bad order, and in want of 
almofl every thing. 


( 57 J 

Th<* 14th, another meeting was held, when the 
urgent neceffities of the Tick being fully confide- 
dered, it was refolved to borrow 1500 dollars of 
the bank of North America, for the purpofe of 
procuring fuitable accommodations for the ufe 
of perfons affiicled with the prevailing malig¬ 
nant fever. At this meeting, a committee was 
appointed to tranfacl the whole of the bufinefs 
relative to the relief of the fick, and the procu¬ 
ring of phyficians, nurfes, attendants, &c. This 
is the committee, which, by virtue of that ap¬ 
pointment, has from that day to the prefent 
time, watched over the fick, the poor, the wi¬ 
dow, and the orphan. It is worthy of remark, 
and may encourage others in times of public ca¬ 
lamity, that this committee con filled originally 
of only twenty-fix perfons, men taken from 
the middle walks of life, and of the moderate 
pitch of abilities ; of thefe, four, Andrew Ad- 
gate, Jonathan Dickinfon Sargeant, Daniel Of- 
iley, and Jofeph Inikeep, died, the two firfh at 
an early period of their labours—and four ne¬ 
ver attended to the appointment. “ The heat 
and burden of the day” have therefore been 
borne by eighteen perfons, whole exertions have 

been fo highly favoured by providence, that 

Ii 


( 58 ) 


they have beeil the inftruments of averting the 
progrefs of deftruftion, eminently relieving the 
diftrefled, and reftoring confidence to the ter¬ 
rified inhabitants of Philadelphia. It is honoura¬ 
ble to this committee, that from the time of 
their organization to the prefent, they have li¬ 
ved together in more harmony than is generally 
to be met with in public bodies of equal num¬ 
ber. 

Never, perhaps, was there a city in the fitu- 
ation of Philadelphia at this period. The prefh 
dent of the united ftates, according to his an¬ 
nual cuftom, had removed to Mount Vernon, 
with his houfehold. Moft, if not all of the 
other officers of the federal government were 
abfent. The governor, who had been fick, had 
gone, by directions of his phyfician, to his coun¬ 
try feat near the falls of Schuylkill—and nearly 
the whole of the officers of the ftate had likewife 
retired.—The magiftrates of the city, except 
the mayor, and John Barclay, efq. were away, as 
were moft of thofe of the liberties. Of the fttua- 
tion of the guardians of the poor I have already 
made mention. In fact, government of every 
kind was almoft wholly vacated, and feemed, by 
univerfal confent, to be vefted in the committee. 


( 59 ) 


On the 15th, the committee refolded, that 
three members of their board fhould attend 
daily at the city hall, to receive applications 
for relief, to provide for the burial of the dead, 
and the conveyance to Bufhhill of all perfons la¬ 
bouring under the fever, who might be willing 
to go there. This order was foon refcinded, it 
being found necelfary for all the members to at¬ 
tend at the halh 

This day, a circumftance occurred, to which 
the molt glowing pencil could hardly do juftice. 
Stephen Girard, a wealthy merchant, a native of 
France, touched with the wretched fituation of 
the fufferers at Bufh hill, voluntarily and unex¬ 
pectedly offered to fuperintend that hofpitaL The 
furprife and fatisfaction, excited by this extraor¬ 
dinary effort of humanity, can be better con¬ 
ceived than expreffed. Peter Helm, a native of 
Pennfylvania, aduated by the like benevolent 
motives, offered his fervices in the fame depart¬ 
ment. Their offers were accepted, and the fame 
afternoon they entered on the execution of 
their dangerous and praifeworthy office. 

To form a juft eftimate of the value of the 
offer of thefe men, it is necelfary to take into 


t 


full eonfideratlon the general conffernation, 
which at that period pervaded every quarter of 
the city, and which made attendance on thefick 
be regarded as little lefs than a certain facrifice, 
Uninfluenced by any ref]exions of this kind,with¬ 
out anypoffible inducement but the pureft motives 
of humanity, they came forward, and offered 
themfelves as the forlorn hope of the committee, 
I trufl that the gratitude of their fellow citizens 
will remain as long as the memory of their bene- 

Jtr • * 

hcent conduct, which I hope will not die with the 
prefent generation. While I am on this fubject, 
let me add, that from the time of undertaking 
this office to the prefent, they have attended un- 
interruptedly,for fix, feven, or eight hoiirs a day, 
renouncing almofl every care of private affairs. 
They have had a laborious tour of duty to 
perform—to encourage and comfort the fick—to 
hand them neceffaries and medicines—to wipe 
the fweat off their brows—and to perform 
many difgufting offices of kindnefs for them, 
which nothing could render tolerable, but' the 
exalted motives that impelled thfem to this 
heroic condudh 

On the 16th, the managers of Bufhhil], after 


( 61 ) 


perfonal infpccHcn of the ft ate of affairs there* 
made report of its fituation, which was truly 
deplorable. It exhibited as wretched a picture 
of human mifery as ever exifted. A profligate* 
abandoned fet of nurfes and attendants (hardly 
any of good character could at that time be 
procured*) rioted on the provifions and com¬ 
forts* prepared for the fick* who (unlefs at the 
hours when the doctors attended) were left ah 
moil entirely deftitute of every affittance. The 
dying and dead were indifcriminately mingled- 
together. The ordure and other evacuations of 
the lick, were allowed to remain in the molt 
offenfive ftate imaginable. Not the fmalleft ap« 
pearance of order or regularity exitted. It was, 

r 

in fact, a great human daughter houfe* where 
numerous victims were immolated at the altar 
of riot and intemperance. No wonder* then* 
that a general dread of the place prevailed 
through the city, and that a removal to it was 
confidered as the fcal of death. In confequence* 
there were various inftances of fick perfons 
locking their rooms, and refitting every attempt 
to carry them away. At length, the poor were 
fo much afraid of being fent to Bufhhill, that 
they would not acknowledge their illnefs, ’till 


( 6 ^ ) 


it was no longer poffible to conceal it. For it is 
to be obferved, that the fear of the contagion 
was fo prevalent, that as foon as any one was 
taken fick, an alarm was fpread among the 
neighbours, and every effort was ufed to have 
the lick perfon hurried off to Bufhhill, to avoid 
fpreading the diforder. The cafes of poor peo¬ 
ple forced in this way to that hofpital, 
though labouring under only common colds, 
and common fall fevers, are numerous and af¬ 
flicting. There were not wanting inftances of 
perfons, only flightly ill, being fent to Bufhhill, 
by their panic-ftruck neighbours, and embra¬ 
cing the firft opportunity of running back to 
Philadelphia. But the cafe was foon altered un¬ 
der the direction of the two managers, Girard 
and Helm. They introduced fuch order and 
regularity, and had the patients treated with fo 
much care and tendernefs, that they retrieved 
the character of the hofpital; and in the courfe 
of a week or two, numbers of fick people, who 
had not at home proper perfons to nurfe them* 
applied to be fent to Bufhhill. Indeed, in the end 
fo many people, who were afflicted with other 
diforders, procured admittance there, that it be¬ 
came neceffary to pafs a refolve, that before an 


♦ 


( 63 ) 


order of admiffion fhould be granted, a certifi¬ 
cate muft be produced from a phyfician, that 

the patient laboured under the malignant fever, 

* ’ , , . 

The committee fat daily at the city hall, and 
engaged a number of carts to convey the dead 
to a place of interment, and the fick to the hof- 
pital. From their organization to the prefent 
time, they have moft unremittingly attended 
to the difcharge of the truft repofed in them. 
Neither the regular increafe of deaths till to¬ 
wards the middle of October, nor the afflicting 
lofs of four very active members, in quick fuc- 
ceffion, appalled them. That the mortality would 
have been incomparably greater, but for their 
active interpofition, is beyond doubt; as moft 
of thofe who went to Bufhhill, and died there, 
would have otherwife died in the city, and 
fpread the contagion : and the dead bodies 
would have remained putrifying in deferted 
houfes in every part of the city, and operated 
as dreadfully as the plague itfelf. In fact, at the 
time they entered on the execution of the dan¬ 
gerous office they undertook, there were found 
feveral bodies that had lain in this ftate for two, 
three, and four days. 


( 64 ) 


In the progrefs of the diforder, the committee 
found the calls on their humanity increafe. The 
numerous deaths of heads of families left a very 
larye body of children in a moft abandoned, foiv 
lorn hate* The bettering houfe, in which fiich 
helplefs objects have been ufually placed hereto¬ 
fore, was barred againfl them, by the order which 
I have already mentioned. Many of thefe little 
innocents were actually buffering fox want of 
even common neceffaries. The deaths of their 
parents and protectors, which ihould have been 
the ftrongeft recommendation to public charity, 
was the very reafon of their diftrefs, and of their 
being fhunned as a peililence. The children of a 
family once in eafy circumftances, were found 
in a blackfmith’s ihop, fqualid, dirty, and half 
ftarved, having been for a confiderable time 
without even bread to eat. Various infiances of 
a fimilar nature occurred. This evil early caught 
the attention of the committee; and on the i ptli 
of September, they hired a houfe in Fiftli-ftreet, 
in which they placed thirteen children. The 
number increafing, on the 3d of October, they 
procured the Loganian library, which was ge¬ 
neral! fly given up by John Swan wick, Efq. for 
the purpofe of an orphan houfe. A further in- 


( ^5 ) 

treafe of their little charge, rendered it necelYary 
to build fome additions to the library, which are 
now finifhed, and are nearly half as large as that 
building. At prefent, there are in the houfe, un¬ 
der the care of the orphan committee, above 
eighty children, and about forty are out with 
wet nurfes. From the origin of the inftitution, 
one hundred and fixty children have fallen un¬ 
der their* care, of whom fcven are dead, all of 
whom, except one, were fucking children ; and 
about thirty have been delivered to their relati ¬ 
ons or friends. There are inftanc.es of five and 
fix children of a fingle family in the houfe. , 

Another duty foon attracted the attention of 
the committee. The flight of fo many of our ci¬ 
tizens, the confequent ftagnation of bufinefs, and 
the almoft total deflation of the labours of the 
guardians of the poor, brought on among the 
lower claftes of the people, a great degree of 
diftrefs, which loudly demanded the interpofi- 
tion of the humane. In confequencc, on the 
20th of September, a fufi-committee of diftribm 
tion was, appointed, to furnifh fuch afliftance to 
deferving objects as their refpective cafes might 

I 


( 66 ) 

t Squire, and the funds allow*. This was at hr ft 
adrniniftercd fparingly, owing to the confined 
•Rate of their finances. But the very extraordh 
narv liberality of our fugitive fellow citizens, of 
the citizens of New York, and of thofe of va¬ 
rious towns and townfhips, encouraged the 
committee to extend their views. And frequent 
impofitions being attempted on them, they, on 
the 14th of October, called to their affifiance a 
number of refpeciable characters in the different 
parts of the city and liberties, to feck out and 
give recommendations to deferving objects in 
diftrefs. Thefe gentlemen have undertaken this 
troublefome office, which they execute with fo 
much circumfpecfion, as to defeat the arts of 
impoftors. At prefent, there are about twelve 
hundred people relieved weekly, moft of whom 
have confiderable families, feme of four, fix, 
and eight per fens. The number, therefore, de¬ 
pending on the committee for affifiance, is pro¬ 
bably above four thoufand. The gradual revival 

NOTE. 

* They hat!, in addition to the firlt loan from the hank 
of North America, borrowed 5000 dollars from the fame 
institution, making in the whole 6500. 


( O ) 

of bufmefs promifes to refcue fome of thefe pec*? 
pie fpeedily from the humiliation of a depen¬ 
dence on public charity ; and the organization 
of the guardians of the poor will make provifb 
on for the remainder. 

From this time, the proceedings of the conn 
mittee went on in a regular, uniform tenor, 
every day like the paft, without any thing re¬ 
markable occurring, worth recording. For above 
five weeks of the time they have been employ¬ 
ed, the moll dreary profpects appeared before 
them. The number of perfons to be removed to 
Bufhhill daily, was for a long tinje from twenty 
to thirty—and the number to be buried by 
their carters, was often equal. Thefe two cir- 
cumftances, the removals to the hofpital, and 
the perfons buried from the city-hall, were re¬ 
garded as the barometer, by which to judge of 
the hate of the difeafe ; apd in general they 
were a juft one. 

The week, beginning Sunday the 27th of 
October, proved for the moft part cold and raw. 
JSiortherly winds generally prevailed. Thurfday 
gild Friday, there was a conliderable fall of rain % 


t 


( 63 ) 

N 

■A vifible alteration has already taken place in 
the hate of affairs in the city. Our friends return 
in crouds. Every hour, long-abfent and welcome 
faces appear—and in many inflances, thofe of 
perfons, whom public fame has buried for weeks 
pah. The flores, fo long clofed, are opening fait. 
Some of the country merchants, bolder than 
others, are daily venturing in to their old place 
of fupply. Market-flreet is almofl as full of wag¬ 
gons as ufual. The cuftom houfe, for weeks near¬ 
ly deferred by our mercantile people, is throng¬ 
ed by citizens entering their veffels and goods 
—the flreets, too long the abode of gloom and 
defpair, have affumed the buflle fuitabie to 
the feafon. The arrival in the city of our be¬ 
loved prefident gives us a flattering profpect 
of the next feflion of congrefs being held 
here. And, in fine, as every thing, in the 
early ftage of the diforder, feemed calculated 
to add to the general confirmation ; fo now, on 
the contrary, every circumftance has a tendency 
to revive the courage and hopes of our citizens. 
But we have to lament, that the fame fpirit of 
exaggeration and lying, that prevailed at a for¬ 
mer period, and was the grand caufe of the 
hajfh meafures adopted by our fifter hates, has 


( 6 9 ) 


not ceafed to operate ; for at the prefcnt mo» 
•ment, when the danger is entirely done away, 
the credulous of our own citizens frill abfent, 
and of the country people, are hill alarmed by 
frightful rumours, of the diforder raging with 
as much violence as ever $ of numbers carried 
off, a few hours after their return ; and of new 
cafes daily occurring. To what defign to attri¬ 
bute thefe lhameful tales, I know not. Were I to 
regard them in a fpirit of refentment, I fliould 
be inclined to charge them to fome fecret, inter- 
efted views of their authors, intent, if poffible, 
to effect the entire deftruction of our citv. But 
I will not allow mvfelf to confider them in this 

4 

point of light—and will even fuppofe they arife 
from a pronenefs to terrific narration, natural 

to fome men. But they Ihould confider, that we 

# * 

are in the fituation of the frogs in the fable— 
while thefe tales, which make the hair of the 
country people hand on end, are fport to the far 
bricators, they are death to us. And I here affert, 
and defy contradiction, that of the whole num¬ 
ber of our fugitive citizens, who have already 
returned, amounting to fome thoufands, not 
above two are dead—and thefe owe their fate 
to the moft fhameful neglect of airing and 




( 70 ) 


deanfing their houfes, notwithflanding the vari* 
pus cautions publiflied by the committee. If peo¬ 
ple will venture into houfes in which infected air 
has been pent up for weeks together, without 
any purification, we cannot be furprized at the 
confequences, however fatal they may be. But 
let not the cataflrophe of a few incautious peiv 
fons operate to bring difcredit on a city contain¬ 
ing above fifty thoufand people. 

At the time of writing thcfe lines, the ioth of" 
November, the committee look forward with 
pleafure to the moment of furrendering up their 
truft to a town meeting of their fellow citizens, 
the conftituents by whom they were called into 
the extraordinary office they have filled. To 
them they will give an account of their ftew- 
ardfhip in a time of diflrefs, the like of which 
heaven avert from the people of America for¬ 
ever. They hope a candid conftruction will be 
put upon their conduct—and that it will be be¬ 
lieved that they have acted in every cafe that 
has come under their cognizance, according 
to the bell of their judgment. 

The fympathy for our calamities difpiaved in 


( p ) 


various places, reflects the higheft honour oft? 
their inhabitants, and demands our warmeft 
gratitude. The inhabitants of Gloucefter county 
m New Jerfey, have the honour of being firfi: 
in this laudable race. So early as the 30th of 
September, they had a co^ifiderable fum collect¬ 
ed, with which they purchafed a quantity of 
provilions for the ufe of the hofpital at Bufh- 
hilh They have frcrm that time regularly con¬ 
tinued copious fupplies twice a week. From a 
few citizens of Philadelphia, near Germantown, 

there have been received two thoufand dollars ; 

✓ 

from others near Darby, fourteen hundred ; 
from New York, five thoufand; from a perfon 
unknown, five hundred; from Bucks’ county 
fixteen hundred ; from Delaware county twelve 
hundred ; from Franklin county nearly five hun¬ 
dred ; from Bofion fundry articles, eftimated 
at twenty-five hundred ; and from fundry other 
perfons and places, contributions equally liberal 
and honourable. 

The diforder raged with increased violence, a* 
the feafon advanced towards the mikl fall 
months. In the month of September, the mor¬ 
tality was much greater than in Auguft; and 
ftill greater in October, to the 25th, than in Sep- 


( 7 2 ) 


tembcr. What is very particularly worthy of 
attention, is, that though all the hopes of the 
citizens relied on cold and rain, efpecially the 
latter, yet the diforder was extinguilhed with 
hardly any rain, and a very moderate degree of 
cold. The 26th may he fet down as the day 
when the virulence of the fever expired. The 
deaths afterwards were moftly of thofe 
long lick* Hardly any perfons have fince ta¬ 
ken it. That day was as warm as many of the 
moft fatal ones in the early part of the month. 
To account for this is perhaps above our power. 
In fact, the whole of the diforder, from its firft 
appearance to its final clofe, has fet human wifi* 
dam and calculation at defiance. 

Rarely has it happened, that fo large a pro¬ 
portion of the gentlemen of the faculty have 
funk beneath the labours of their very dange¬ 
rous profeffion, as on this occafion. In little more 
than a month, exclufive of medical Undents, no 
lefs than ten phyficians have been fwept off, doc- ' 
tors Hutchinfon, Morris, Linn, Pennington, 
Dodds, Johnfon, Glentworth, Phile, Graham, 
and Green. Hardly one of the prafHfmg doctors 
that remained in the city, efcaped ficknefs—~ 
feme were three, four, and five times confined- 


( 73 ) 

* i 

■ * ■ V • ‘V ; 

To the clergy it has likewife proved very 
fatal. Expofed, in the exercife of the laft duties 
to the dying, to equal danger with the phyfici- 
ans> it is not furprifing that fo many of them 
have fallen. Their names are, the rev. Alexander 
Murry, of the proteftant epifcopal church—-the 
rev. F.. A. Fleming and the rev. Laurence 
Graefsl of the Roman catholic—the rev. John 
Winkhaufe, of the German reformed—the rev, 

James Sproat, of the prefbyterian—the rev. 

•* 

William Dougherty, of the methodift church'— 
and five preachers of the Friends fociety, Da¬ 
niel Offley, Hufon Langftroth, Michael Minier, 
Rebecca Jones, and Charles Williams, Seven 
clergymen have been in the greatelt danger 
from this ciiforder, the rev. R. Blackwell, rev. 
Jofeph Pilmore, rev. William Rogers, rev. 
Chriftopher V. Keating, rev. Frederic Schmidt* 
the rev. Jofeph Turner, and the rev. Robert 
Annan ; but they have all recovered. 

Among the women, the 'mortality has not by 
any means been fo great, as among the men*. 

NOTE. 

* la many congregations, the deaths of men have been 

» *0 *, o . - 

twice as numerous as rhofe of women, 

K 


( 74 ) 


nor among the old and infirm as among the mid¬ 
dle-aged and robuft. 

To tipplers and drunkards, and to men who 
lived high, and were of a corpulent habit of 
body, this diforder was very fatal. Of thefe, 
many were feized, and the recoveries were very 
rare. 

To the jllles de joie 0 it has been equally fataL 
The wretched debilitated ftate of their conftitu- 
tions, rendered them an eafyprey to this dread¬ 
ful diforder, which very foon terminated their 
miferable career. 

It has been dreadfully deftructive among the 
poor. It is very probably that at leaft feven 
eighths of the number of the dead, were of 
that clafs. The inhabitants of dirty houfes 
have feverely expiated their negled of cleanli- 
nefs and decency, by the numbers of them that 
have fallen facrifices. Whole families in fuch 
hotifes have funk into one filent, undiftinguifh- 
ing grave. 

The mortality in confined ftreets, fmall ah 


i 


( 75 ) 

lies, and dole houfes, debarred of a free circus 
iation of air, has exceeded, in a great proportion, 
that in the large ftreets and well-aired houfes. In 
fome of the allies, a third or fourth of the whole 
of the inhabitants are no more. In 30 houfes, the 
whole number in Pewter Platter alley, 32 peo¬ 
ple died: and in Market-ftreet, in 170 houfes, 
only 39. The ftreets in the fuburbs that had the 
benefit of the country air, efpeci^lly towards the 
weft part of the city, have fuffered little. Of the 
wide, airy ftreets, none loft fo many people as 
Arch, near Water-ftreet, which may be account* 
ed for by its proximity to the original feat of the 
diforder. It is to be particularly remarked, that 
in general, the more remote the ftreets were 
from Water ftreet, the lefs they experienced 
pf the calamity. 

From the effeds of this diforder, the French 
fettled in Philadelphia, have been in a very re¬ 
markable degree exempt. To what this may be 
owing, is a fubjed deferving particular inveftiga- 
tion. By fome it has been afcribed to their de* 
fpifing the danger. But, though this may have 
had fome effect, it will not certainly account 
fpr it altogether ; as it is well known tha^ 

■* * - \ S ’•» 1 i. 1 \ 


( 7 6 ) 

many of the moft courageous perfons in Phila¬ 
delphia, have been among its vidims. By- many 
of the French, the prevalence and mortality of 
the diforder have been attributed to the yaft 
quantities of crude and unwholefonie fruits 
brought to our markets, and coiifumed by all 
claffes of people. 

The effect of fear in predifpoiing the body 
for this and other diforders, and increafing their 
malignance, when taken, is well known. The 
following exception to the general rule, for the 
truth of which I pledge myfelf, is curious and 
interefting. A young woman, whofe fears were 
fo very prevalent, as not only to render her un¬ 
happy from'the commencement of the diforder, 
but even to interfere with the happinefs of the 
family with whom ftie lived, had to attend on 
feven perfons, all of whom were in a very dan¬ 
gerous ftate, and one of whom died. Her at¬ 
tendance was ailiduous and unremitted for 

nearly three weeks. Yet the has never been in 

■ * , . , 

the flighted: degree affected. 

At an early ftage of the diforder, the elders 
of the African church met, and offered their 


( 77 ) 


fervices to the mayor, to procure nurfes for 
the fick, and to affift in burying the dead. 
Their offers were accepted; and Abfalom Jones 
and Richard Allen undertook the former de¬ 
partment, that of furnifhing nurfes, and Wil¬ 
liam Gray, the latter—the interment of the 
dead. The great demand for nurfes afforded 
an opportunity for impohtion, which was eager¬ 
ly feized by fome of the vileft of the blacks. 
They extorted two, three, four, and even five 
dollars a night for attendance, which would 
have been well paid by a Angle dollar. Some of 
them were even detected in plundering the 
houfes of the fick. But it is vcrong to caff a 
cenfure on the whole for this fort of conduct, as 
many people have done. The fervices of Jones, 
Allen, and Gray, and others of their colour, 
have been very great, and demand public grati¬ 
tude. 

■* * • , * 

When the yellow fever prevailed in South 

Carolina, the negroes, according to that accm 

* _ _ 

rate obferver, Dr. Lining, were wholly free 
from it.. cc There is fomething very lingular 
ic in the confHtution of the negroes,” fays he 
u which renders them not liable to this fever ; 


( 78 ) 


cc for though many of them were as much ex~ 
u poled as the nurfes to this infection ; yet I 
i(f never knew one indance of this fever among 
u them, though they are equally fubjedt with 
1C the white people to the bilious fever.”* The 
fame idea prevailed for a confiderable time in 
Philadelphia ; but it was erroneous. They did 
not efcape the diforder ; however, the number 
of them that were feized with it, was not great; 
and, as I am informed by an eminent dodtor, 
cc it yielded to the power of medicine in them 
u more eafily than in the whites.” 

Thofe who refledt on the many revolting ca¬ 
fes of cruelty and defertion of friends and re¬ 
lations which occurred in Philadelphia, how¬ 
ever they may regret, cannot be furprifed, that 
in the country and in various towns and cities, 
inhumanity fhould be experienced by Philadeh 
phians from drangers. The univerfal confter- 
nation extinguifhed in people’s breads the 
mod honourable feelings of human nature; 
and in this cafe, as in various others, the fuf- 

N O T E. 

* Ell ays and obfervations, vol. II. page 4*7. 


C 79 ) 

picion operated as injuriously as the reality. 
Many travellers from this city, exhaufted with 
fatigue and with hunger, have been refufed 
all Shelter and all fuStenance, and have fallen 
vi&ims to the fears, not to the want of cha¬ 
rity, of thofe to whom they applied for re^ 
lief. Inftances of this kind have occurred on 
almoft every road leading from Philadelphia. 
People under fufpicion of having this diforder, 
have been forced by their fellow travellers to 
quit the Stages, and perilhed in the woods 
without a poflibility of procuring any afliSlance. 
At Eaflon, in Maryland, a waggon-load of 
goods from Philadelphia, was actually burn¬ 
ed ; and a woman, who came with it, was tar¬ 
red and feathered*. 

There is one fa£t refpe&ing this diforder, 
which renders it probable, that the exercife of 
the duties of humanity towards the fugitive 
Philadelphians, would not have been attended 
with the danger univerfally imagined. In defi- 

N O T E. 

* Through mifinformation, this atrocious circumftance 
was ftated in the former edition to have happened at 
Milford, in Delaware ftate. 


) 


ance of all the refactions entered into by the in¬ 
habitants of various towns, many of our infect¬ 
ed citizens evaded their vigilance, and took re¬ 
fuge among them, and in only one or two ca¬ 
fes is it known that they communicated the 
infection—and even in thefe not mortally. 
Three perfons from Philadelphia died of this 
diforder, in one houfe at Woodbury, in New 
Jerfey ; they had been attended during their 
illnefs by the family, none of whom caught the 
infection. Six or feven died at Darby, as ma¬ 
ny at Germantown, and eight at Haddonfield, 
without communicating it to any of the inhabi¬ 
tants. A man from Philadelphia, of the name 
of Cornell, died in New York, about two days 
after his arrival. The place of his death was 
a boarding houfe, in which were a number of 
boarders, one of whom flept in the fame bed 
with him. Two of the family only were ilight- 
ly affeCted—but not in fuch a degree as to re¬ 
quire medical aid. Three other infeCted per¬ 
fons from our city, who, when difcovered, 
were removed to Governor's ifland, died there, 

r.*« p 

and no one took the diforder from them. A 
man died at one of the principal taverns in Bal¬ 
timore, of the fame diforder. Many people had 


( 8i ) 


vifited and attended him daring the whole of 
his illnefs, without injury. No perfon was af¬ 
fected but his do&or, whofe indifpofition was 
not of long continuance. A great number of 
iimilar inflances have occurred at Burlington, 
.Bordenton^ Lamberton, Princeton Brunfwic, 
Woodbridge, Newark, Lancafter, and various 
other places, and in no cafe, except thofe at Bal¬ 
timore aind New York, has the infection fpread. 

The terror that prevailed in Philadelphia, 
and which was fpread through the continent, 
arofe from the fatality of the diforder at firlt, 
very few of thofe who took it then having efca- 
ped. This, with all deference to the medical 
gentlemen,' arofe probably from their being un¬ 
acquainted with it. That this was the cafe, is 
candidly acknowledged by feveral of the moft 
eminent among them. The fatf: is, that the ter¬ 
ror was at no time greater, than about the end 
of Auguft, at which period, the deaths did not 
▼ery far exceed the ufual number in that month. 
When the mortality raged moft dreadfully, 
from the middle of September to the middle of 
October, the public were much lefs alarmed, 
owing to the occurrence of feveral recoveries* 

L 


( 82 ) 


&nd their becoming callous by the force of hi- 
bit. During this time it was, that all the Ipon- 
ges, fmelling bottles, handkerchiefs fteeped in 
vinegar, camphor bags, See. difappeared. 

( ... _ 

The ftate of the police and of fociety in Phila¬ 
delphia, appears to no fmall advantage, when 
we confider one circumftance. Notwithftanding 
the abfence of the magiftrates, and the immenfe 
value of property left unprotected through the 
fears of the owners, and the deaths of the per- 
fons left to take care of it, we have as yet heard 
df only one or two burglaries committed.— 
Another was attempted, but the plunderers 
were difcovered.and taken. A hardened villain 
from a neighbouring ftate, formed a plot with 
fbme negroes to plunder houfes. He was a mafter 
rogue, had digefted a complete fyftem, and 
formed a : large partnerfhip for the more fuccefs- 

■~c. . 

ful execution of his fchemes. However he was 
foon feized, and the company diftblved. 

The jail of Philadelphia is under fuch excel¬ 
lent regulation, that the diforder made its ap¬ 
pearance there only in two or three inftances, 
although fuch abodes of mifery are the placed 


where contagious diforders are moft commonly 
generated. When the yellow fever raged moft 
violently in the city, there were in the jail one 
hundred and fix French foldiers and Tailors, 
confined by order of the French conful, be- 
fides eighty convi&s, vagrants, and perfons 
for trial ; all of whom, except two or three, 
remained perfeftly free from the complaint. 
Several circumftances have confpired to pro¬ 
duce this falutary effeft. The people confined 
are frequently cleanfed and purified by the ufe 
of the cold bath—they are kept conftantly em¬ 
ployed—vegetables form a confiderable part of 
their diet—-in the yard, vegetation flourifhes 
—and many of them being employed in ftone 
cutting, the water, conftantly running, keeps 
the atmofphere in a moift ftate, while the peo¬ 
ple of Philadelphia have been uninterruptedly 
parched up by unceafing heat. Elijah Weed, 
the late jailor, caught the diforder in the city, 
in the performance of the paternal duties to¬ 
wards his daughter, and died in the jail, 
without communicating it to any of the people 
confined. I hope I fhall be pardoned for pay¬ 
ing a tribute to the memory of this valuable 

i * 

citizen, under whofe government of the jail. 


( S 4 ) 


and with whofe hearty co-operation, moil of 
the regulations in that inflitution have been 


effected, which, with the fuccefsful experi¬ 
ments made in England, prove that jails may 
be eafily converted 4 from finks of human depra¬ 
vity and wretchednefs, into places of reforma¬ 
tion ; fo that, inflead of rendering the idle 
Vagrant, confined merely on fufpicion, or for 
want of friends to protect him, obdurate, 
wicked, and ripe for rapine and fpoil, the 
profligate and abandoned may leave them in a 
fituatjon to become ufeful members of fociety. 
For the honour of human nature, it ought to 
be recorded, that fome of the convifts in the 


jail, a part of the term of whofe confinement 
had been remitted as a reward for their peace¬ 
able,' orderly behaviour, voluntarily offered 
themfelves as nurfes to attend the fick at Bufh- 
Jiill, ‘ and have in that capacity conduced 
themfelves with fo much fidelity and tender- 

ivefs, that they have had the repeated thanks 

* 1 

of the‘managers. Ameng them are fome who 
were forrnerly regarded, and with juftice, as har¬ 
dened abandoned villains, which the old fyflem 
was calculated to make every tenant of a jail, 
who remained there a few weeks. According* 


( «5 ) 


> 


to the lame luminary fyftem, thefe men's lives 
would have been long fince offered up as an 
atonement to fociety for the injury they had 
done it. That is, in plain Englifh, becaufe fo¬ 
ciety had fuffered one injury by rapine, it 
>vas neceflary it fhould fuffer another by law. 
But by the improved plan, they and great num¬ 
bers of others are reftored to fociety and 
ufefuinefs once more. So much better, although 
not quite fo eafy, is it to reform men, than to 
butcher them under colour of law and jnffice. 

In the fu mmcr of 1791, the yellow fever pre¬ 
vailed in New York, in a part of Water-ffreet ; 
and in proportion to the fphere of its action 
was as fatal there as it has been here. It began 
\n Auguft, and continued till the middle of 
September, when it totally difappeared, and 
has never fince vifited that place. This fhould 
eafe the fears of many among us, who, always 
viewing the black fide of every thing, terrify 
people with their prognoftications, that we 
fhall have it again next fpring or fummer. 
All the fymptoms* were full as dangerous and 
alarming in New York, as in Philadelphia. 
Many performs died in three days ; u ffupor, 


(86 ) 

** delirium, yellownefs, the black vomit, and 
u death, rapidly fucceeding each other . 99 % It 
fpread no farther at that time, than the one 
ftreet, although no precautions, as far as I can 
learn, were taken to prevent its extenfion. 
The fame fpecies of diforder raged in this city 
in 1762, with great violence. It difappeared in 
the month of November, and has not from 
that time until the prefent year vifited Phila¬ 
delphia. 

The fummer and fall of this year have been 
unhealthy in many parts of the union, as well 
as in Philadelphia. At Lynn, in Maflachufetts, 
I have been informed, but have no means of 
afcertaining the truth or falfehood of the re¬ 
port, that a malignant fever, not unlike ours, 
prevailed in Auguft. In many of the towns of 
Virginia, fevers and agues have been much 
more prevalent and dangerous then they have 
been at former periods. Georgetown and its 
vicinity,which are in general very healthy, loft, 

NOTE. 

i Letter from a phyiician in New York, to his friend 
sn New Jerfey, Federal Gazette, Sept. 21, 1793- 


( 8 ; ) j ( 

m the courfe of a few weeks in fummer, an un¬ 
exampled number of people by the flux, which 
diforder has raged with great violence in many 
other places. The influenza hasfpread general¬ 
ly through the union, and been very fatal. It 
has been twice in Vermont, where likewife the 
putrid fore throat has carried off numbers. At 
Harrifburg and Middletown, in this ftate, the 
flux and a putrid fever have been extremely 
deflrudtive, and fwept away, I am credibly in¬ 
formed, a fifteenth part of the inhabitants.- De¬ 
laware ftate, particularlyKent county, has fuffer- 
ed much from fall fevers, which have produ¬ 
ced a very great mortality. And various other 
places have experienced a mortality, very un~* 
common, and which, but for the calamity of 
Philadelphia ablorbing public attention every 
where, would have created great alarms and 
uneafinefs. 

Although the proceedings of many people in 
Philadelphia have been flfongly tinctured with 
cruelty, and a total dereliction of every princi¬ 
ple of humanity, yet the general conduct has not 
been fo fhocking as in London during the 
plague. In that city,when ahoufe was known to 


( 88 ) 


have an infe&ed perfon in it, it was fattened up, 
and aguard placed at the door, to prevent any one 
from coming out, until after a quarantine of 40 
days ; and if, during that time, any other was 
infe&ed, a new quarantine was impofed. Thus 
entire families fell facrifices to an order, equal¬ 
ly fenfeiefs and cruel ; and by thefe means, dead 
bodies lay often for weeks together in the moil 
dreadful and noxious ftate of putrefaction. 
Such odious orders exited not in Philadel¬ 
phia. However, there have been various inftan- 
ces of houfes being left to the care of a fervant 
or two, who fell lick, and having no means of 
communicating their diftretes to the neigh¬ 
bours, perifhed for want of affiftance* 

I have learned with great pleafure, that a few 
landlords, commiferating the dittretes of their 
tenants, have come to the very humane refo- 
lution of remitting the payment of rents du¬ 
ring the prevalence of the diforder. Were they 
to enter into refolutions generally to do the 
fame, it would reflectt honour on them* But there 
are fome whole hardened hearts know no com¬ 
panion, and who will have u the pound of 
' 4 flefh—the penalty of the bond.” Indeed, 


( S 9 ) 

when the diforder was at the higheft ftagCj, 
Come landlords feized the fmall property of 
poor roomkeepers, who were totally unable 
to pay their rent. One man wrote to the com* 
mittee, informing them that the poverty of his 
tenants rendered it impoflible for them to 
pay him ; he therefore begged the commit* 
tee would, as they were appointed to relieve 
the poor, pay the arrearages due him ! 
Another perfon, a wealthy widow, produced 
recommendations for fome poor roomkeepers, 
her tenants ; and the committee gave them 
each a fmall fum. As foop as they had received 
it, {he feized the money and their clothes ! 

As I have been obliged to note a variety 
of horrid circumftances, which have a ten¬ 
dency to throw a fhade over the human charac* 
ter, it is proper to reflect a little light on the 
fubjedt, wherever juflice and truth will per* 
mit. Amidft the general defertion that prevail¬ 
ed, there were to be found many illuftrious 
inflances of men and women, fome in the mid¬ 
dle, others in the lower fpheres of life, who* 
in the exercife of the duties of humanity, 
expofed themfelves to dangers, which tern- 

M 


( 9® ) 


Ifcd men, who have hundreds of times faced 
dfeath without fear, in the field of battle• 
Some of them, alas ! have fallen in the good 
caufe ! But why fhould they be regretted ! ne¬ 
ver could they have fallen more glorioufly. 
Foremoft in this noble groupe hands Jofepli In- 
Ikeep, a moft excellent man in every of the lo¬ 
ci al relations, of citizen, brother, hufband, and 
friend—To the lick and the forfaken, whether 
he was acquainted with them or not, has he 
devoted his hours, to relieve and comfort them 
in their tribulation. Numerous are the inftan- 
ces of men reflored, by his kind cares and at¬ 
tention, to their families from the very jaws of 
death.—In various cafes has he been obliged 
to put dead bodies into coffins, when no other 
perfon could be had to perform that office. An¬ 
drew Adgate’s merit in the fame way, was 
confpicuous, and of the laft importance to num¬ 
bers of diftreffed creatures, bereft of every 
other comfort. Of thofe worthy men, Wilfon, 
and Tomkins, I have already fpoken. The rev. 
mr. Fleming and the rev. mr. Winkhaufe, 
exhaufled themfelves by a fuccelfion of labours, 
day and night, attending on the fick, and mi- 
niftering relief to their fpiritual and temporal 


( 9 1 > 


wants. Of thofe who have happily furvived their 
dangers, and are preferved to their fellow citi¬ 
zens, Ilhall mention a few. They enjoy the fu- 
preme reward of a felf-approving confcience; 

and I readily believe, that in the moft fecret 

> 

recedes, remote from the public eye, they would 
have done the fame. But next to the fenfe 
of having done well, is the approbation 
of our friends and fellow men ; and when the 
debt is great, and the only payment that can be 
made is applaufe, it is furely the word fpecies of 
avarice, to withhold it. We are always ready, too 
ready to beftow cenfure—and, as if anxious 
left we fhould not give enough, we generally 
heap the meafure. When we are fo folicitous 
to deter by reproach from folly, vice, and crime, 
why not be equally difpofed to ftimulate to vir¬ 
tue and heroifm, by freely beftow in g the well- 
earned plaudit? The rev. Henry Helmuth’s 
merits are of the moft exalted kind. His whole 
time, during the prevalence of the diforder, 
was fpent in the performance of the works of 
mercy, vifiting and relieving the Tick, comfort¬ 
ing the afflicted, and feeding the hungry. Of 
his congregation, fome hundreds have paid the 
laftdebt to nature, ftnce the malignant fever 


( 92 ) 


began) and, I believe, he attended nearly the 
whole of them. To fo many dangers was he 
expofed, that he ftands a living miracle of pre- 
fervation. The rev. C. V. Keating and the rev. 
mr. Uftick have been in the fame career, and 
performed their duties to the fick with equal 
fidelity, and with equal danger. The venerable 
old citizen, Samuel Robefen, has been like a 
good angel, indefatigably performing, in families 
where there was not one perfon able to help 
another, even the menial offices of the kitchen, 
in every part of his neighbourhood. John Con¬ 
nelly has fpent hours befide the fick, when their 
own wives and children had abandoned them. 
Twice did he catch the diforder—twice was he 
on the brink of the grave, which was yawning 
to receive him—yet, unappalled by the immi¬ 
nent danger he had efcaped, he again returned 
to the charge. I feel myfelf affecled at this part 
of my fubjedt, with emotions, in which I hope 
my reader will participate. And, as a human 
being, I rejoice that it has fallen to my lot, to 
be a witnefs and recorder of a magnanimity 
which would alone be fufficient to refeue the 
character of man from obloquy and reproach* 


* 


( 93 ) 

Shall I be pardoned for palling a cenfure on 
thole, whofe miftaken zeal led them, during the 
moll dreadful ftages of this calamity, to croud 
fome of our churches, and aid this frightful ene* 
my in his work of deftruction ? who, fearful 
left their prayers and adoration at home would 
not find acceptance before the Deity, reforted 
to churches filled with bodies of contagious 
air, where, with every breath, they inhaled 
noxious miafmata ? To this fingle caufe I 
am bold in afcribing a large proportion of the 
mortality—And it is remarkable, that thofe 
congregations, whofe places of worihip were 
moft crouded, have fullered the moft dreadful¬ 
ly. Will men never acquire wifdom ? Are we 
yet to learn that the Almighty architect of the 
heavens and the earth does not require cc tern- 
“ pies made with men’s hands ?” that going to 
a place of worihip, againft the great law of felf 
prefervation, implanted in indelible characters 
by his divine hand, on the breaft of every one 
of his creatures, conftitutes no part of the ado¬ 
ration due to the maker and preferver of man¬ 
kind ? That a “ meek and humble heart” is 
the temple wherein he delights to be worlhip- 
ped r I hope not—I hope the awful leffon fomc 


( : $4 ) 


erf our congregations hold forth on this fubjeef^ 
by a mortality out of all proportion to their 
numbers, will ferve as a memento at all future 
times, in the like critical emergencies ! 


Of the number of citizens who fled away, it 
is difficult to form any accurate eftimate. In 
the city* from Vine to South ftreefc, which has 
been furveyed by a man employed by the com¬ 
mittee, of 21,000 inhabitants, the number of 
abfent people isftated to he 86oo. But as this 
bofinefs was feveral weeks performing, con- 
liderable variations, muft neceffariiy have taken 
place. The emigration was not finifhed in thofe 
ilreets examined in the early part of his pro- 
grefs,—and towards the latter part, the immi¬ 
gration had been already considerable. Allow¬ 
ing one to balance the other, and the remo¬ 
vals in the liberties to have been equal to thofe 
m the city, we fhall probably nor err much 
whenwe eftimate the number who left the city at 
about 17,000. This is not fo many as I fuppofed 
when I laff wrote on the fubje£t*, at which time 

NOTE. 

* independent Gazetteer^ Odto-ber 26* 


( .95 ) 

I eftimated them at 23,000. Which of the two 
is accurate, or whether either of them is fo, I 
leave the reader to determine. 

Some of thofe who remained in the city, 
have, for reafons not very eafy to juftify, been 
ill the habit of reproaching thofe who fled, 
with criminality, as deferters, who abandoned 
their polls-}-. I believe, on the contrary, that 
as the nature of our government did not al¬ 
low the arbitrary meafures to bepurfued, which, 
in defpotic countries would probably have ex- 
tinguifhed the diforder at an early period 
'—it was the duty of every perfon to avoid the 
-danger, whofe circumftances and fituation al¬ 
lowed it. The effects of the defertion were, 

NOTE. 

«*• i 9 

f If they were even guilty of a crime, it brought its own 
'punifhment ; as I am fully convinced that thofe who 
were abfeiit, and a prey to the anxiety caufed by the 
frightful reports current, luffered more than thole who 
remained. I fpeak from experience. In a few days abfence, 
when the diforder had not reached its fummit, I heard 
more terrific accounts of it, than in as many weeks in 
Philadelphia, when it raged molt violently, and carried 
off from eighty to a hundred daily 


( 96 ) 

moreover, falutary*. The fphere of action of the 
diforder was diminifiied. Two or three empty 
houfes arrefted the difeafe in its progrefs, as it 
was {lowly, but furely travelling thi’ough a 
ftreet, and probably refcued a neighbourhood 
from its ravages. We {hall long have to mourn 
the fevere lofs our city has felt, in being bereft 
of fo many valuable citizens: and had the 
17,000 who retired, been in the city during the 
prevalence of the diforder, and loft as large a 
proportion of their number, as thofe did who re¬ 
mained, we fhould, inftead of 4000 dead, have 
loft nearly 6000 \ and perhaps had to deplore in 
the number, another Clow, a Kay, a Lea, a 
Sims, a Dunkin, a Strawbridge, men of exten- 
live bufmefs, whofe lofs will be long felt—a Pen¬ 
nington, a Glentworth, a Hutchinfon, a Sar- 
]eant, a Howell, men endowed by heaven with 
eminent abilities—-a Fleming, a Graefsl, a 
Sproat, men of exalted piety and virtue—a Wil- 

N O T E. 

* Perhaps had all our citizens remained, we lhould 
have had famine added to our calamity ; whereas we had 
plentiful markets during the whole time. The prices, foo, 
were in general not far beyond what they are ufually at 
the fame feafon of the year. 


C 97 ) 


fon, an Adgate, a Baldwin, a Carroll, a Tom. 
kins, citizens of moft eftimable characters. Let 
thofe, then, who have remained, regard their 
long-abfent friends, as if preferved from death 
by their flight, and rejoice at their return in 
health and fafety—let thofe who have been ab- 
fent, acknowledge the exertions of thofe who 
maintained their ground. Let us all unite in 
the utmofl vigilance to prevent the return of 
this fell deftroyer, by the moft fcrupulous at¬ 
tention to cleanftng and purifying our fcourged 
city—and let us join in thankfgiving to that Su¬ 
preme Being, who has, in his own time, ftay- 
ed the avenging ftorm, ready to devour us, 
after it had laughed to fcorn all human efforts, 

I omitted to inform the reader in the proper 
place, that dr. Deveze and dr. Benjamin DuL 
field have gratuitoufly and with the utmoft 
punctuality, attended at Bufhhill hofpital nearly 
from the organization of the committee to the 
prefent time. 




( 98 ) 


£Committee for relieving the flick and dijlreflect, 
appointed by a-meeting of the aiiizens of Phi¬ 
ladelphia, flummoned by advertifement in the 
public papers, Sept, 13, 1793.. 

Prefident, 

MATTHEW CLA RK S O N. 

Secretary , 

CALEB LOWNE'S, 

Treaflurer . 

* 

THOMAS W I STAR. 

Managers of Bufhhill hoflpital, 

STEPHEN GIRARD. PETER HELM. 


Orphan committee, 

ISRAEL ISRAEL. J AMES K ERR. 

JOHN LETCHWORTH. J. SHARSWOOD, 

v Committee of diftribution. 


ISRAEL ISRAEL. 
JOHN HAWORTH. 
JAMES SWAINE. 
MATHEW CAREY. 
TH OMAS SAVER Y. 


JAMES KERR. 
JACOB WITMAN. 
J. LETCHWORTH. 
T. S H A R S W O OD. 
SAMUEL BENGE, 


( 99 ) 


Super intendant of the burials of the dead , and 

re?noval of tbe fick, 

SAMUEL BENGE, 

Diftribator of /applies* 

HENRY DEFORES T. 

Comiyiittee of accounts* 

JAMES SHARSWOOD. JOHN CON NELLY* 

x - . . ~ v , 

Committee on the publication of letters. 

CALEB LOWNE S. MATHEW CAREY. 

Deceafed members* 

. '' \ 

A. ADGATE. DANIEL OFFLEY. 

J. D. SARGEANT, J O S EI> II IN SK EEP, 


{ 100 ) 

Lift of a few of the inhabitants of Philadelphia, who 
have dledfmee the firft of Auguft . 


Andrew Adgate, 

Mrs. Adgate . 

Robert Allifon, At. 82. 
fames Alder. 

Mary Allen, At. 73.* 

-—— Amand, 

Thomas P. Anthony . 

Mtj. Annan. 

JFVte/* Aft on, 

Caleb Atimore, 

George Baker . 

Daniel Baldwin, 

Edward Ban 7wg ton, 

J. f. De Barth, 

Corn Ifm Barnes and two 
Jons. 

Adam Baufch. 

Mary Berry, At. 7 5, 
Claudius A . Berner, 
Samuel BetteL 
Nathaniel Blodgett. 
Thomas Boone, 

Benjamin B flock, 

Andrew Bos hard, wife, 
and mother . 

Mr. CW, 


Thomas Carnes. 

David Clark. 

James Galbraith, jun . 
Charles Carroll. 

Joshua Creffon, 

Thomas Clifford. 

Matthew Conard. 

Frederic Chrijlian. 
Andrew Clow, 

Thomas Devonald, 
Elizabeth Dickinfon, 

John Davis, 

John Dunkin, 

Jofeph Dean, 

F. X. Dupont, F. Con . 

Dickinfon. 

Dr. John Dodds. 

Rowland Evans. 

Mr. Engle. 

Francis Finlay, 

Samuel Fisher. 

David Flickwir, and 5 of 
his family. 

Nicholas Forsberg. At. 73. 
Mrj-. Fergufon. 

Barnabas Fearis. 



( *0 

David Franks, 

Richard Gardiner. 
Nathaniel Glover, 

"James Gilchrijl, 

Z 9 r. P. <S. Glentworth, 
Jofeph Gaven, 

John Guef,fen. 

Dr, —— Graham, 

Graff, 

John Hall, 

Jacob R. Howell, 

Jacob Howell, 

Adam Flubley, 

Oliver C, Hull, 

Michael Hay, wife, 

//6 m? children . 

Parry Hall and Jiff er-in¬ 
law. 

Mrs. Henfman, daughter, 
fon-in-law, four grand 
children, ^ w^/V/ 

fervant, all out of one 
houfe. 

Dr. James Hutchinfon. 

7 ■ D. Hamel in, 

P Haines, fen* 

William Haffel, 

John Hockley. 

William Hays. 

H. Heatley. 

Richard Humphreys, 
Jofeph lnfkcep. 


) 

Owk Jones, JEt. 84. > 
P. Jones, JEt. 64, 

Alary Jones, 

Samuel Johnfon, 

Robert Johnfon, 

Airs. Keppele. 

Chrifopher Kucher . 
Philip Kucher. 

David Kay, 

John H. Lombaert, 
‘Catharine Lemaigre, 

Dr. John Lynn, 

Abraham Lott, 

Hufon Lang froth. 

James Lapjley, 

Samuel Lob dell, 

Ifaac Lewis. 

Alexander Lawrence, fen. 
Alexander Lawrence, jun. 
Thomas Lea, 

Jofeph Mercier, 

Anna Mercier, 

Rev. Dr. Murray, 

Sufan. Milnor, cet. 80, 
Abigail Morris. 

Benjamin Morrell. 

Jacob Ad organ, 

Hannah Morgan, 

Ifaac Miller, 

Richard Mafon, 

Tbo mas MR CormicL 
Abraham Mafon . 




102 ) 


John Morton , 

Catharine MullowTiey. 
yvj/w Morrfon , 

Elizabeth Morris. 

Dr/zc 3 Mullen , 

Peter Miercken. 

Martin M c Dermofy 
John Morgan. 

C I homas M tiler. 

Dr. ;V?/2 Morris. 

W. Rich oils , 73. 

yDjr McNair. 

Thomas O’Hara , 

Daniel Offley. 

James Pickering. 

Frederic Phile , 

Sidney Paul. 

Mr . Peters and two fans. 
Vincent M. Pelofi. 
Matthew Parker y 
Benjamin Pitfeldy 
Elizabeth Pratt. 

Samuel Penn , 

Dr. yD/z Pennington . 
Benjamin Poultney. 

Samuel Powell ? 

Alexander Penman. 
Robert Patton , 

George Rainsford y 
Hannah Rogers. 

James Ready Ait. 75, 
^0/6/2 Richard/on. 


William Raft on- r 
Rachel Ralftony 
James Reid , 

John Rudolphy 
Jonathan Shoemaker ^ 
John Toddy fen. 

William Shipley , 

Fred. W. Star man. 

Woo dr op SiniSy 
Jofeph Shoemaker , 
Sfrawbridgey 
John Stokesy 
Samuel Swan. 

Townfend Speahnan. 

Anna Sewelly Ait. 67^ 
William Sellersy 
Jonathan D. Sarjeant % 
Rev. Dr. Sproat y 
William Sproaty 
Mary Sproaty 
Nancy Sproat. 

Rebecca Smithy 
Philip Snyder. 

Charles Syng and wife. 
John Stuckardy wifey and 
. daughter. 

Peter Stuckardy wifey and 
daughter. 

John Toddy jun. 

Jofeph Tateniy 
Peter Thomfony fen. 
Samuel Taylor y 


I 


/ 


Mr. Yanhorne . 
John Wood , 
'Charles Williams > 
James Worjldll, 
Mrs. Webfter. 
James Watkins . 

Whart071 , 
'James Wilkinfon , 
YE lea nor Watfon , 
A’fcr Webber. 


( 103 ) 

William Whitcfide 9 
Willet , 

William Waring , 

Warner Washington. 

John Wigton , and wife, 
Mary Willing , 

Jofeph Whitehead\ 

Mr. Wetherby and wife'* 
Agnes Toting, 


i 


Lift of all the Burials in the fcveral grave yards of the city 
and liberties of Philadelphia , as taken from the Books 
kept by ClergymenSextons , &c. from Augujl ijk /• 
November Qth, 1793. 


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16! 7 


2 




1 

28 

80 

18 


2 

1 


4 

1 

1 


5 

1 

'5 


ii) 3 

1 

1 





2 

22 

59 

J 9 

2 

3 



4 

! 1 



4 

2 

2 


14 2 

1 

1 





2 

27 

65 

Sc 

2 

3 

1 


3 

j 2 



4 

1 

4 


11 

6 


1 





1 

17 

55 

21 

4 



2 

3 

l 1 



\s 

2 

4 


8 

4 


1 





I 

24 

59 

22 

2 



2 

3 

2 


2 

! 5 

2 

\7 


19 

2 

2 

1 





2 

31 

82 

2J 

I 



1 

3 




5 

3 

1 


IC 

7 







1 

l 3 

54 

24 

I 

1 

! 



3 



'2 


|* 


8 

4 








17 

3 8 

»5 

5 



1 

2 

1 


1 

I 

1 

j 1 


8 

l 







2 

IO 

35 

hi 

2 

5 



1 

1 


1 


1 

|2 


5 

2 


1 





ji 

5 

23 

2; 

1 

1 

1 





1 



! I 


1 

2 








6 

13 

2 ^ 

5 1 

j I 


2 







4 


6 

3 


1 





1 

6 

25 

2 f 

/ 1 





1 

1 


I 


U 


4 

2 








6 

17 

30 1 

1 





I 


i 2 


\ 


3 

1 







2 

6 

16 

35I 

1 

1 



1 


1 


I* 


I 1 


7 

4 








8 

22 















































































* 


NOVEMBER. 



* 


» 

1 

1 

1 i 

— 



, 



l 

3 


3 

2 

O' 

bs 

1 

3 

1 

2 



cjj 

V. i 

3 

1 

d 


• 

i 




1 



b-0 

5 

2 



to 

.«i 

4 

1 

I 







1 




5 




■ts ‘ 


2 










•*> 

5 s 

2 

1 



5 s 

is 

6 


I 







3 


I 

>>4 

1 




ti 

7 

2 



I 





1 


4 

A 


r 

| 

| 


ft* 

8 


I 







2 

1 



1 


1 



9 










1 









Auguft 





. 




. 




September 


m 




- 


•» 

- 





October 


- 



- 




m 

<a 


if, 

• I* 'O 
8 

5 W 'S 


November - - - - 

Jews, returned in grofs - 

Baptifts, Do. - 

Methodifts, - - - " 

Free Quakers, Do. - 
German part of St. Mary’s congregation 








-d 



d 

<d 



0 

•-S 



4 s 

u 

Ul 

. 

O' 

C 5 

r-A 

<D 

w 

IS 

4- 



4-> 

C 

> 

oj 

0 

f-, 

‘-> 

id 




2 

5 

13 

> 


.3 

21 

N; 

1 

4 

13 

5 

1 

6 

jij 



6 

!I 4 

Hs 


5 

'll 

1 

«* 

1 

5 

3 

15 
8 



3 

6 


3*5 

144 * 

1993 

118 

7 , 

50 

3 * 

39 

30 

Total 4031 




t 


\ 


































































r Chrift Church » 
Ptoteftant Epifcopalians < St. Peter’s 

(.St. Paul’s. 
fFirft - 

j Second - 
Prcibyterians ^ Third - 

1 Affociate •» 

^Reformed - 

r St. Mary’s - *• 

toman Catholics < German part of do. 

C Trinity - 

Friends - - - - 

Free Quakers - - Returned in grofs. 

w, C Lutherans - 

German | c a i v inias - 

Moravians - J - 

Swedes - - - 

Baptifts - - Returned in grofs. 

Methodilis - ■» Do. 

tjniverfalifts - 

Jews - - Do. 

Kenfingfott » ^ “ 

Potter’s field, including the new ground 



i 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS, 


made in PHILADELPHIA, 

DAVID RITTENHOUSE, 

AUGUST, lfa. 


Barometer, 


A. 

M. 

3 ? 

. M. 

29 

95 

S° 

O 

30 

1 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

5 

29 

95 

29 

97 

3 o 

0 

3 ° 

5 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

2 

30 

0 

3 ° 

12 

30 

v 1 

3 ° 

1 

29 

^5 

2 .9 

8 

29 

75 

29 

9 

29 

9 

3 ° 

0 

3 ° 

0 

< 3 ° 

0 

3 ° 

0 

3 ° 

5 

3 ° 

0 

3 ° 

0 

29 

95 

CO 

0 

0 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

i 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

i 

3 ° 

c 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

0 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

12 

3 ° 

15 

30 

2 5 

3 ° 

3 

3 ° 

3 : 

3 ° 

2 5 

3 ° 

J 5 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

1 5 

3 ° 

2 

3 ° 

2 

3 ° 

2 

3 ° 

2 

3 ° 

15 

3 ° 

16 

3 ° 

*5 

3 ° 

1 

30 


3 ° 

0 

3 ° 

'O 


Thermometer, 
6 A* M. 3 p. M, 


65 

77 

63 

81 

6a 

fir 

82 

8-7 

°5 

73 

07 

9 ° 

77 

87 

68 

83 

^9 

86 

75 

85 

67 

82 

70 

' 84 

70 

87 

7 i 

89 

75 

82 

72 

75 

70 

8,3 

7 i 

86 

73 

89 

72 

^82 

6 9 

82 

62 

83 

63 

86 

63 

85 

73 

81 

7 i 

66 

59 

6 9 

65 

73 

67 

80 

72 

86 

74 

8/ 

74 

84 


Wind. 


6 A. M. 

3 P. lit. 

WNW 

NW 

NW 

, SW 

N 

NNE 

S 

sw 

SSW 

sw 

sw 

w 

NW 

w 

SSE 

SSE 

SSW 

SW 

w 

sw 

sw 

wsw 

w 

w 

sw 

w 

sw * 

sw 

NNE 

NE 

NNE 

NE 

SW 

SW 

calm 

SW 

N 

N 

NNE 

NNE 

N 

NNE 

NE 

SE 

calm 

S 

calm 

calm 

NE 

NE 

NE 

NE 

NE 

NE 

S 

calm 

calm 

SW 

calm 

sw 

SW 

NW 


F 


B Y 

Efqiaire* 


Weather, 


6 A. M, 

3 ?. Mm 

cloudy, 

fair, 

fair. 

fair, 

fair, 

fair. 

fair, 

fair. 

fair, 

fair. 

cloudy, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

rain. 

cloudy, 

fair, 

f pV 

fair, 

cloudy. 

cloudy* 

fair, 

fair. 

fair, 

fair. 

fair, 

rain, 

rain, * 

cloud y* 

fair, 

fair- 

fair. 

fair. 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

cloudy- 

fair, 

fair. 

fair, 

fair. 

fair, 

fair. 

fair, 

fair, 

cloudy, 

rain. 

rain, 

great rain, 

cloudy. 

cloudy, 

cloudy, 

cloudy,’ 

cloudy, 

clearing- 

cloudv. 

fair, 

iair, 

fa ir. 

rain, 

fair, 


i 







METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
PHILADELPHIA 



Barometer. 


Thermometer. 


6 A. 

m. 3 

p. 

M. 

6a. m . 

3 P.M 

1 

30 

0 

e 9 

30 

7 i 

86 

2 

29 

75 

29 

8 

73 

86 

0 

80 

0 


f 

60 


* 

4 

30 

*5 

3 ° 

15 

55 

75 

5 

3 ° 

15 

30 

1 

62 

80 

6 

e 9 

97 

29 

95 

70 

89 

7 

3 ° 

0 

30 

0 

65 

77 

8 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

1 

64 

70 

9 

3 ° 

0 

3 ° 

0 

66 

80 

10 

3 ° 

0 

3 ° 

0 

64 

72 

11 

30 

1 

3 ° 

0 

62 

72 

12 

29 

96 

29 

9 

58 

76 

13 

29 

95 

30 

0 

57 

72 

14 

3 ° 

0 

30 

5 

58 

79 

*5 

3 ° 

0 

29 

97 

65 

80 

16 

29 

9 

29 


70 

84 

J 7 

29 

8 

£ 9 

r 

°5 

66 

67 

j 8 

3 ° 

3 



44 


*9 

30 

4 

3 ° 

35 

45 

70 

£0 

3 ° 

3 

30 

*5 

54 

69 

£1 

go 

0 

29 

0 

59 

78 

£2 

3 ° 

0 

3 ° 

0 

63 

83 

®3 

3 ° 

1 

3 ° 

1 

62 

81 

£4 

3 ° 

2 

3 ° 

3 

6 5 

70 

2 5 

3 ° 

15 

30 

0 

61 

68 

£6 

29 

8 

29 

/ 

58 

79 

27 

29 

7 



64 


28 

3 ° 

5 

3 o 

1.5 

1 54 

73 

29 

3 ° 

3 

3 ° 

3 

56 

74 

30 

1 30 

35 

So 

3 

1 57 

75 


SEPTEMBER, 1793. 

Weather. 

6 A. M. 3 P. M, 

fog, fair, 

fair, fair, 

fair, fair, 

fair, fair, 

fa.r, cloudy 

fair, cloudy 

fair, fair, 

cloudy, cloudy, 

rain, fair, 

fair, cloudy 

cloudy, fair, 
fair, fair, 

fair, fair, 

fair, fair, 

fair, fair, 

cloudy, fair, 

cloudy, cloudy 

fair, 

fair, fair, 

hazey, hazey, 

cloudy, fair, 

cloudy, fair, 

cloudy, cloudy, 

cloudy, fair, 

cloudy, cloudy,! 

cloudy, fair, 

cloudy, fair, 

fair, fair, 

cloudy, fair, 

foggy, fair. 


Winds. 


A. m. 

Calm 

sw 

NW 

w 

SE 

WSW 

WNW 

Calm 

SE 

N 

NNE 

NW 

NW 

NW 

N 

S 

N 

N 

Calm 

Calm 

Calm 

Calm 

Calm 

NE 

NE 

N 

NW 
NW 
NE 
Calm 


3 P. M. 

sw 

sw 

N 

w 

s 

w 

NW 

Calm 

NW 

NNE 

N 

N NW 
' N 
NW 
S 

SW 

N 

SW 

SE 


SE 

ENE 

NE 

N 

NW 

NW 

ENE 

SW 


A 


/ 













) 


METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 


PHILADELPHIA, OCTOBER, 1793. 


Barometer. 

1 hermomete 

A. M. 

2 p 

M. 

7 A. M. 

2 p. 

3 ° *5 

3 ° 

5 

64 

80 

2 9 9 

3 ° 

5 

70 

72 

30 2 

3 ° 

*5 

5 ° 

72 

2 9 75 

29 

7 

59 

72 

30 0 

3 ° 

1 

58 

66 

3 ° 3 

3 ° 

3 

43 

66 

3 ° 45 



46 


3° 6 

30 

6 

53 

68 

30 5 

3 P 

4 

53 

70 

30 2 

3 ° 

2 

49 

74 

30 0 

29 

85 

51 

74 

26 6 

29 

55 

58 

64 

2 9 85 

29 

9 

49 

69 

3 G 5 

3 ° 

c 

52 

76 

2 9 75 

29 

8 

56 

54 

30 0 

3 ° 

0 

37 

53 

3 ° 1 

3 ° 

1 

37 

60 

3 ° 1 

3 ° 

1 

4 i 

62 

30 0 

29 

9 

5 i 

66 

30 0 

3 ° 

0 

44 

54 

3 o 0 

3 ° 

2 

49 

59 

29 6 

29 

5 

5 i 

65 

29 8 

29 

8 

47 

60 

3 o 3 

3 ° 

4 

36 

59 

3 o 4 

3 ° 

3 

46 

7 i 

30 2 

3 ° 

2 

60 

72 

3 o 3 

3 ° 

3 

44 

44 

30 2 

3 ° 

1 

34 

37 

29 85 

29 

85 

28 

44 

3 o 1 

3 ° 

j 

28 

49 

3 o 15 

3 ° 

2 

42 

45 


Winds, 


7 A. M, 

2 P. M, 

sw 

SW 

w 

NNW 

w 

sw 

sw 

W : 

N 

N 

NE 

W 

calm 


N 

N 

NW 

NW 

NW 

E 

W 

W 

SW 

NW 

NW 

NW 

SW 

SW 

SW 

N 

NNW 

N 

NE 

NE 

NW 

NW 

N 

N 

NW 

N 

N 

NW 

NW 

N W 

W 

W 

w 

NW 

s 

S 

calm 

SW 

NNE 

NNE 

N 

N 

NNW 

NW 

cahn 

SW 

calm 

NNE 


Weather, 

7 A. M. 

2 P. 

cloudy, 

fair. 

cloudy. 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

cloudy, 

cloudy. 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair 


fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fait. 

fair, 

fair, 

rain, 

rain. 

fair, 

fair, 

calm, 

fair, 

fair, 

rain, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair. 

fair, 

fair, 

cloudy. 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

cloudy, 

fair,high w 

cloudy, 

cloudy. 

cloudy, 

cloudy, 

cloudy, 

cloudy. 

fair, 

fair, 

hazy, 

ha?y. 

cloudy, 

rain. 





Meteorological observations# 


PHILADELPHIA, NOVEMBER, 1793. 


1 

Barometer 


Thermometer, 

Wind. 

1 

7 A. M ; . 2 

PV 

M. 

7 A, M. 

2 P , M. 

7 A’ . M. 

2 P. M. 

1 

30 

1 

3° 

1 

40 

4 1 

NNE 

NE 

2 

30 

3 

3° 

2 5 

3 2 

49 

NNE 

NE 

3 

3° 

1 

3° 

0 

43 

$6 

Calm 

SW 

4 

2 9 

8 

2 9 

9 

55 

67 

sw 

SW 

5 

3° 

15 

30 

1 

5 ° 

64 

NE 

NE 

6 

2 9 

8 

2 9 

65 

63 

67 

S 

S 

7 

2 9 

8 

2 9 

8 

44 

64 

Calm 

sw { 

8 

; 2 9 

3 

2 9 

85 

43 

56 

SSW 

sw 

9 

29 

9 

2 9 

95 

4 a 

64 

SW 

sw 


Wea her. 


7 A- M. 

2 P . & 

ain, 

c loudy, 

v air, 

fair, 

cloudy, 

cloudy; 

■ cloudy, 

fair, 

rain, 

rain, 

loudy, 

cloudy,* 

air, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair, 

fair/